Week 18: 14th – 17th June 2016

It has been quite a short but intense week. Major outputs were the submission of the DAAD UA 2016 grant application as well as the submission of the Ethics application.

Outcomes of the ethics can be expected by the end of the month. As for the DAAD and UA application results will be announced by November 2016.

Concurrent I am carrying out my literature review and was able to obtain further “rare” literature. In particular “Play of Man” by Karl Groos 1901 is quite a useful resource:

Literature: The play of man, Karl Groos

Carrying a walking- stick is another playful satisfaction in which the hand’s sensation of contact has a part. P.10

Water affords the delightful sensations of touch; in the bath of course, enjoyment of the movements and temperature is more conspicuous, but the soothing gentleness of the moist element is not to be despised.

As in all specialised pleasures, intensive emotion betrays itself.

Sensation of temperature

The stimulus of heat and cold is conspicuous, as ices and permint, hot grog, spices, and spirits witness. P.14

Sensation of taste




characterised as internal imitative creation. The purest, highest and most spontaneous pleasure is that in which we have no thought for the artist, but yield ourselves whole-heartedly to the beautiful object.


Power of rhythm (p.28)

Enjoyment of melody as a mental fusion of two kinds of association, one is the analogue of pleasing movement in space and the other one is the vocal expression of mental and emotional processes. Together both can create a new entity – an alternative reality.

Schopenhauer: nothing else produces the “idea of movement” in such purity and freedom as tone-beats.

Köstlin Aesthetik, p. 560: “glides, turns, twists, hops, leaps, jumps up and down, dances, bows, sways, climbs, quivers, blusters, and storms, all with equal ease, while in order to reproduce it in the physical world a man would have to dash himself to pieces or in some way become imponderable.”

The magic part of music is that our consciousness repeats, in voluntary and persistently, the varying dance of tones, and feed from all incumbrances, floats blissfully in boundless space p.28 f.

It is a kind of language, which the soul’s deepest emotions seek expression.

There are many points of resemblance between melody and the verbal expression of feelings. P.29

Focus on the enjoyment of melodies rather the origin of music. Thunder sounds like an angry voice. The song of birds provides us clues about their identifiable likeness between their vocal expression of emotion and the songs that call for the most direct response.p. 29 f.

children enjoy rhythm from very early age. Most songs for children originate from grown people and are childish in character and include elements that resonate with children most. p. 39

pleasure in overcoming difficulties is an essential feature of all play. p.39

playful experimentation becomes the mother of invention and of discovery.

On colours

Child display more interest in warmer colours such as red, yellow than colder ones. p.55

Movement as play

Perception of movement by means of the eye alone, and consequently the instinct of keeping absolutely motionless. P. 67

Practice is necessary for the mastery of this capacity. p.68

Fröbel described the pleasure of success which, together with gratification of instinctive impulse, makes learning to walk such a satisfaction. p.82

“As it becomes more mechanical, walking loses its playful character. Pleasure in simple locomotion is experienced by adults, as a rule, only when the discharge of their motor impulses has been hindered by a sedentary life, and even then motion is not the chief source of satisfaction. The regular rhythm of walking acts like a narcotic on an excited mind, which reacts to it unconsciously.” p.82

“exciting movement play which possesses, in common with other narcotics, the magic power of abstracting us from commonplace existence and transporting us to a self-created world of dreams.” p.91

“The simplest effects being a kind of anaesthesia, relaxation of all tension, unconsciousness of fatigue, and the illusion of being free from bodily weight, like a spirit floating about in space.”  p.91

“This illusion in itself productive of great enjoyment, explains our pleasure in such dances as we are considering.” p.91

“The hammock in cases can be considered as the prototype of the swing. The Brazilian Bakairi that the men when at home spend most of their time swinging in hammocks. Greeks has several forms of the swing, among them the joggling board, consisting of a flexible plank supported at its ends on fixed beams, and the ropes swing which with its comfortable seat supported by four cords was used by adults.”p.93

“In Athens celebrates an special holiday called after the swing. Pleasure in riding and driving being partly due to the control we have over the horses, such enjoyment is a combination of active and passive. Even when we are steering a boat the illusion is easily supported that we are to some extend responsible for its progress. Riding has other elements of attraction: besides the forward motion and lofty seat there is some peculiar enjoyment of each particular gait.” p. 94

Otto “Lilienthal recalls his experience of gliding through the air in a slanting direction affords a new and delightful sensation.”p. 94

6 different groups of movement play resulting from impulse (p.95):

  1. Mere “hustling”things about
  2. destructive or analytical play
  3. constructive or synthetic play
  4. plays of endurance
  5. throwing plays
  6. catching plays.

to 1. Exemplar cases: tearing paper, pleasure in shaking a well-fitted purse, turning handle on a coffee mill, pulling out drawers, handling smooth sand and clay.

Provides instance joy –> conspicuous in all play of this class

All connected with senses –> seeing, hearing, tactile play, desire for sensory excitement p.96 f.

To 2. Handling of external objects (toys) p. 97 f.

To 3. Constructive (synthetic) movement- play: similar to analytic play bears to the fighting instinct. p.99

This includes collecting things, or combative emulative spirit which is active in almost all play.p.101

To 4.



Schiller called play “aimless expenditure of exuberant strength, which is its own excuse for action. P.362


Herbert Spence characterised play in his work “Principles of Psychology” as a first attempted a scientific formulation of the theory, “nerve processes, that the superfluous integration of ganglion cells should be accompanied by an inherited readiness to discharge. As a result of the advanced development of man and the higher animals they have, first, more force than is needed in the struggle for existence; and second, are able to allow some of their powers longer periods of rest while others are being exercised, and thus results the aimless activity which we call play, and which is agreeable to the individual producing it.” p. 362

Its is a question about the origin of special forms of play must be answered.

Not imitation, but the life of impulse and instinct alone can make special forms of play comprehensible to us.

“The surplus energy theory assumes in the higher forms of life a series of inborn impulses for whose serious activity there is often for a longer time no opportunity of discharge, with the result that a reserve of exuberant strength collects forth an ideal satisfaction of the impulse, or play.” P. 363


“When we are tired of mental or physical labour and still do not wish to sleep or rest, we gladly welcome the active recreation afforded by play.” P. 364


Play can transcend its limits p. 364

“play is often begun in the absence of superabundant energy.” P.366

In our busy life, occupied as it is with the struggle for existence, we see substantial aims before us which we wish to realize as soon as possible, but we realize its power when a man steps aside from his strenuous business life.” P.366


Play is a distraction form the commonplace world. P.367

Play is repetition “endless delight putting rubber on a pencil and off again, each act being a new stimulus to the eye.” P.367

He concludes that “this impulse toward repetition is doubtless the physiological reason for carrying on play to the utmost limit of strength. The second point to be noticed is the trance-like state resulting from such repetition of some movements, and something with the added influence of rhythm.” P.367 f.

Groos concluded that “adult play must be considered from a biological standpoint. That the grown man long plays after he has outgrown the childish stimuli to play has been sufficiently shown” p. 378

movements, fighting, social play in adulthood is indispensable. artistic enjoyment is the highest and most valuable form of adult play. p.378 f.

Art is the capacity possessed by men of furnishing themselves and others with pleasure based on conscious, self-illusion which, by widening and deepening human perception and emotion, tends to preserve and improve the race.” p.379

Groos stresses further: “Play of adults has a still mote specialized significance, since, as it would be essential to a well-rounded culture, its office as preserver of hereditary race capacities.” p.379

Even the noble gift of imagination may from overindulgence degenerate into a deadly poison. p. 406









Week 13: 09th May- 13th May

Continuing to develop some kind of research design

A potential theory or confirmation of a theory may come out at the end rather testing a pure hypothesis!

  • A- priori (generated from theory, literature) –> health and wellbeing
  • A posteriori (from data gathered)
  • Look beyond language (because different words will we coded differently)

Supervisor meeting

Important not to have a lead question for (lived realm) –> analysis of their response  –> I will do the lead back to “play”

try a matrix diagram to create cross connection from affordance to Lefebvres realms.

use a play theory that I can lay over with Lefebvres theory.

Keep working on Ethics and proposal (for presentation) –> identify a confirmation seminar date.

Status DAAD grant application

Australia-Germany Joint Research Cooperation Scheme application form 2016

Research on affordance

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.


  • Gibson argues affordance is an automatic process that is an integrated part of perception.
  • People perceive things as part of their routine and consider at least to a degree what they could do with that.
  • The potential use of an object to the individual.
  • Question with regards to play is not “what is this?” rather “what can I do with this?”(Kaplan, S. and R. Kaplan (1982). Cognition and environment: functioning in an uncertain world. New York, Praeger. p. 93)
  • Identity of the elements can be explored and elements rearranged.
  • Familiarity is an outcome of a exploration (starting point for play)
  • Even when rearranged object are manipulative,  but manipulation need not to be of concrete objects.

Cognitive maps require a evaluative code in order to be effective guides to action (Kaplan, p.94).

Create tables of possibilities –>  Preference, Type, Material and time dimension

Brendan Gleeson (2016): To a new Babylon, Griffith Review, Melbourne

Gleeson reflexes in his essay on the nexus between tradition, faith and reason. Drawing Terry Eagelton’s work (Hope without Optimism 2015) on the great force of the power of theology as a pathway to resolve the human dilema. Gleeson create a bridge to mental health and outlines that depression will be the second most common disease in the world by 2020 (WHO). Further he indicates that Hannah Arendt’s work (The Human Condition, 1958) and writings of Ivan Illich critic of western society. The critique was directed towards imagination of a world beyond capitalism and excessive trapping of industrial modernity. His imaginary future included a ‘convivial modernity’ where technology were seen as tools and limited to the principles of human and natural sufficiency. –> Bicycle was one of these ideal tools.

Are we creating good enough cities? While asking himself the question he outlines the limitation of utopian scenarios and points towards Eagelton ‘Images of utopia are always in danger of confiscating the energies that might otherwise be invested in its construction’. In addition he notes, that utopian thinking rarely produced anything other than misty eyed pieties that haven’t particular helped anyone.

Gleeson also point out and that is of particular interesting in relation to play as a cognitive behaviour, cognitive behaviour therapy is transfixed with the integrity of the present, evoking a civilisation that cannot mobilise the imaginative energy that is needed to face an imperilled future. –> resulting in higher rates of alienation or as Gleeson puts it ‘to be trapped in exile from human meaning and possibility.

He also highlights that Arendt warned about the collective consequences and summarised it in an ‘outbreak of human stupidity’ with an decrease in common sense supported by an increase of superstition and gullibility.

Conclusion: see the means to transform and renewal with hopeful ideas that can be implemented in the here and now –> embracing possibility of collective imagination in dark times through play.

Mental time travel (a way to capture the lived spaces of Lefebvre’s idea)

Reflexive work on research endeavour

Development of ppt summarising the research journey and development so far.

Draft Introduction presentation GHM

This includes Research question, research paradigm, research design matrix, methodology, initial methods.

Note: I find myself working intensively with the blog in order to keep track of though development.


Week 12: 02nd May- 06 MAy 2016

(Source and copyright: Wanderlust 73)


“Shut up and write” session with Tim on Monday. -> grant application assignment submitted.

In order to view the grant application assignment please press here


DAAD grant session

  • Mission that Germany has many international linkages
  • enable research cooperation
  • greater collaboration around ECR’s (just in Aus?)
  • Looking for project for mutual advantage (skill and knowledge exchange on mutual pursuit)
  • clarity about one joined project –> important to come through
  • value and quality outcomes / is it feasible (internal capacity –> Design project)
  • team has to have good track record (impact,engagement, policy and publications)
  • strong level of involvement of PhD
  • bonus for knowledge transfer and lasting industry outcomes
  • builds on practitioners and policy makers –> advantage
  • collaborative product that can inform strategies in real life (policy ) is a big advantage

–> must have a research outcome

If you show less than five years (career interruption etc.)

teaching and research  must have a valid contract for the entire  funding period. Paul need to have a contract with us (adjunct)

Application closes on the 17 June 2016.

Get to know outcomes by November 2016.

10.000 dollar is our cab for UC (not 12.500)



Bachelard, G. (1958) The poetic of space.

Jean Hyppolite on the structure of denegation in the context of the myth of outside and inside: “you feel significance of this myth of outside and inside in alienation, which is founded on these two terms. Beyond what is expressed in their formal opposition lie alienation and hostility between the two.”

Words such as “this side” and “beyond” are faint repitions of the dialectic of inside and outside. –> we seek to determine being and by doing so we transcend all situations. dialectical words such “here” and  “there” are absolutism adverbs of place and therefore endow with unsupervised powers of ontological determination.p.212

Jean Hyppolite, spoken commentary on the Verneinung (negation) of Freud in La Psychanalyse, No. 1, 1956, p. 35 –> in Bachelard, G. (1958) The poetic of space. p. 212

Mais au-dedans, plus de frontières! (But within, no more boundaries) Jean Hyppolite in Bachelard (1958) p.214

Space is nothing but a horrible “outside-inside” –> horrible because it is radical. However if we are spiritually drifting the state of being makes space time ambiguous. In this space there is no geometrical reference point. –> Henri Michaux

Bachelard concludes that with space images, we are in a region where reduction is easy, a commonplace.

Benefit of phenomenology: it makes it a principle to examine and test the psychological being of an image, before any reduction is undertaken. (Bachelard (1958) p.219)

Rilke wrote in a letter to Clara Rilke: “Works of art always spring from those who have faced the danger, gone to the very end of an experience, to the point beyond which no human being can go. The further one dares to go, the more decent, the more personal, the more unique a life becomes.” (Bachelard (1958) p.220) Further he adds: “This  sort of derangement, which is peculiar to us, must go into our works.”

Van Gogh wrote: “Life is probably round.”, Jöe Bousquet wrote: “He had been told that life was beautiful. No! Life is round. Karl Jesper wrote in (Von der Wahrheit, p. 50) “Jedes Dasein scheint in sich rund.” –> Bachelard observes that this roundness cannot appear in its direct truth otherwise than in the purest sort of phenomenological meditation. (Bachelard (1958) p.233)

Butler, C. (2012) Henri Lefebvre: Spatial politics, everyday life and the right to the city. GlassHouse book

Lefebvre on State power and the politics of space:

“The state uses space in such a way that it ensures its control of places, its strict hierarchy, the homogeneity of the whole, and the segregation of the parts. It is thus an administeratively controlled and even policed space.” (1979, p.288 and 2009, p. 188)

Post war planning rationality can be understood to an aesthetic formalisation that works best under the deployment of logic of visualisation. This limitation from a birds eye perspective lacks depth of social dimension. Brandon Gleeson as well as Nicholas Low  consider this as no more than a representation of images and visions. Gleeson, B. and Low, N. (2000) Australian Urban Planning: New Challenges, New Agendas, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp 190-191)

Yin (2009) Case study research- Design and Methods. 4th edition, ISBN 978-1-4129-6099-1

When to use case study? (p.13)

  • focus on the contemporary environment (how and why questions)
  • me as the investigator have little or no control.

Use of case study as a tool of inquiry:

  • copes with technical distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points, and as one result
  • relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangulating fashion, and as another result.
  • benefits form the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and analysis. (p. 18)

Multiple case studies in a illustrative manner

Design approach based on literature review and findings:

Case study design approach

After loosing all my meta data input after browser update today -I’ve took now picture of the relevant tables that informed the development of the case study design approach.







Week 8: 3rd-7th April 2016

Notes from reading on philosophical background:

Why am I reading this? Because it gives me a better idea for the definitions and thinking on on cities, spaces, places, observation and new thinking in the urban design space about how cities work!

The use of sidewalks: Contact from The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) by Jane Jacobs:

The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designer have come to believe that if they can only solve the problem of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problem of cities. Cities have much more intricate economic and social concerns than automobile traffic. (p.83 Urban Design Reader)

The trust of a city street is formed over time from many, many little public sidewalk contacts. It grows out of people stopping by at the bar for a beer, getting advice from the grocer and giving advice to the newsstand man…Its cultivation cannot be institutionalized. And above all, it implies no private commitments. (p.84 Urban Design Reader)

Impersonal city streets make anonymous people, and this is not a matter of aesthetic quality nor of a mystical emotional effect in architectural scale. It is a matter of what kind of tangible enterprises sidewalks, and therefore of how people use the sidewalks in practical, everyday life. p.84 Urban Design Reader)

City privacy

Privacy is precious in cities. It is indispensable. (p.85 UDR) Further Jacobs notes that ‘A good city street neighbourhood achieves a marvel of balance between its people’s determinations to have essential privacy and their simultaneous wishes for differing degrees of contact, enjoyment or from the people around them. This balance is largely made up of small, sensitively managed details, practiced and accepted so casually that they are normally taken for granted.

When an area of a city lacks a sidewalk life, the people of the place must enlarge their private lives if they are to have anything approaching equivalent contact with their neighbours. They must settle for some form of “togetherness” in which more is shared with one another than on the life of the sidewalks, or else they must settle for lack of contact. (p.87)

Lefebvre Everyday life theories

Henry Lefebvre (2004, Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday Life, Continuum, London, p.73) “(E)veryday life remains shot through and traversed by great cosmic and vital rhythms: day and night, the months and the seasons, and still more precisely biological rhythems … (T)his results in the perpetual interaction of these rhythms with repetitive processes linked to homogeneous time.

changing nature of everyday life time in itself. Butler points out that “Living in rhythm with biological and cyclical forms of repetition becomes more and more difficult as the everyday is subjected to relentless attempts to quantify time and increase productivity from previously non- productive parts of the day or time of the year. He describes Lefebvres observation as “commodification of social time and its transformation into a social product.” A similar claim is made with regards to space production and commodification. (Butler, 2012, p.32)

“(Q)uantified time subjects itself to a very general law of this society: it becomes both uniform and monotonous while also breaking apart and becoming fragmented.  Like space, it divides itself into lots and parcels:  transport networks, themselves fragmented, various forms of work, entertainment and leisure.” (Lefebvre,2004, Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday Life, Continuum, London, p. 74)

Role of festivals: social bonds were traditionally strengthened by communal participation in feasts, music, dance, sport and masquerades.(Lefebvre, 1991, Critique of Everyday Life I: Introduction, Verso; London p. 201-227’9.

Butler notes further that festivals are the way of celebrating regular and cyclical rhythms of nature with which human life is intertwined.

Lefebvres work Production of space reinforces the perceived fragmentation of the mental, physical and social field. –> strongest critique of both positivist models and the idealist currents in french poststructuralism. (compare Butler, 2012, p.39)

Space must move beyond the unhelpful dichotomy between the physical dimensions of space and abstract conceptions of it. (Butler,2012, p.39)

Benefit of Lefebvre to my research: he is trying to achieve an understanding of space that reduces this separation and explains the spatial relationships and connections between the mental, physical and social field. (Lefebvre, 1991, The production of space, Blackwell, Oxford, p. 11) –> How is space produced through a human agency. (Butler, 2012, p. 39)

Social Space is in accordance to Lefebvre simultaneously:

  1. a part of the means and forces of production which progressively displaces and supplants the role of (first) nature.
  2. a product that is consumed as a commodity and as a productive resource in the social reproduction of labour power,
  3. a political instrument that facilitates forms of social control
  4. the basis for the reproduction of property relations through legal and planning regimes which order space hierarchically
  5. a set of ideological and symbolic superstructures
  6. a means of human reappropriation through the development of counterspaces forged by artistic expression and social resistance.(Lefebvre, 1991, The production of space, Blackwell, Oxford,p. 349)

Lefebvre came to the conclusion that the human living body, as a deployment of energies, produces space and reproduces itself within the limits and laws of that space. (Lefebve, 1991, p. 171)

In relation to play in cities –> in which spaces are we play in mostly, eg. deploy our energy? mental, physical or social.

I would argue that pending on context or stage of urban development, we collectively move in western world towards the mental space, resulting is social isolation, and internalised view and consumption of physical space.

Ethics session (04/04/16)

  • Human Research Ethics Committee is meeting 11 times a year.
  • 15 Members
  • HDR needs to sign off the application
  • approved for 3 year (but could apply at the end of it for an extension)
    report annually

Include in my application the following:

  • protect the rights and welfare of research participants
  • protect the researcher (especially from unjustified criticism)
  • to protect institutions
  • to promote good research
  • to comply with regulatory provisions
  • to provide re-assurance to the public that research is undertaken in an ethical way.

Interaction with people so I will need ethics approval!
Stick to the University Coursework Guidelines
observations, case studies, online research, archival research as well as analysing media items such as video and / or audio recording and magazines, testing of ideas in practice as a means of improving  social, economic or environmental conditions and increasing knowledge.


  • Risk (harm, discomfort, inconvenience)
  • Participants (characteristics, recruitment, relationships, respect)
  • Benefit (personal, social, economic, educational)
  • Consent (informed, withdrawal rights)
  • Data (confidentiality, storage, disposal) –> Data must be kept for at least 5 years at Uni computer
  • Research merit (rationale, methodology, interventions)

Can’t store data on USB, or on Dropbox, but cloud is ok.


Human ethics manual

Submission dates (outcome after 5 working days)

out of session approval (2 days turnaround)

Application form

 Writing workshop session (05/04/16)

What is the next most important thing to do?

  • be specific
  • give myself another perspective
  • focus on that one that is the closest to be finished (Jumbo jet method, e.g. get it landed)
  • pick something

–> lack of certainty makes things harder!!

One way to look back on the paper from results and review the structure! –> do always the best you can do and give it a shoot

If I knew what to do what would it be? -> create a story or narrative!

  • Write before you feel ready!
  • Write down your ideas and do not worry about style or grammar!
  • Write as a 10 year old could understand it!
  • Avoid Readitis (believe of reading more articles in order to solve the problem) or Expermentitis (spending time in data in order to find the answer)
  • Get it clear in your head first and then write it down!
  • Writing is not reading
  • Writing is creative
  • Writing is clarifies your thinking
  • try tree bubble structure (5-6 stages until you reach your result)
  • 60 % of peoples papers lack of clarity in the narrative –> always make sure the red line is visible!
  • Writing is rigorous thinking!


Tree- bubble structure (image)

Suggested method:

  1. Write
  2. Read
  3. Write
  4. Read
  5. Write
  6. Read
  • Protect your narrative
  • Quality is in the story that I pull together
  • Write down the links to your next part of the story!
  • Be clear and simple!


  • write little but often
  • binge writing
  • regular snacks (time slots for writing)
  • 1-2 golden hours for writing every day –> try early in the morning when the brain is fresh!!
  • Park on the hill (link your thoughts to the theory, write dot points before stop writing at the end of each section)

What is new writing?

  • new words
  • Motivation kicks usually in after 15 minutes!


  • Purpose of feedback is to make my work as best as possible!


More reading notes on theoretical background

Appleyard and Jacobs (1987) Toward an Urban Design Manifesto, in UDR p. 100) Rasmussen, Kepes, Kevin Lynch and Jane Jacobs identified a new set of vocabulary for urban design which includes sights, sounds, feels, and smells of the city. Materials, textures, floor surfaces, facades, style, signs, lights, seating, trees, sun, shade –> all this from the perspective of the observer and user.

This has humanised urban design in their opinion. Appleyard and Kacobs see problems n modern urban design. Large-scale privatization and a loss of public life, especially in the american city, has become more private embracing the consumer society and their emphasis on the individual and the private sector.

My thoughts (writing):

Why is there nothing that brings the city and play together?

Theoretically “play” can happen anywhere, but it doesn’t. When people talk about play it is usually in the child context, but adults and older members of the community can play as well. Play is a powerful behaviour, not just because its fun and creative, but people can find purpose as well as become healthier. Play is good for physical and mental health. Play is a human right. Through play we can truly learn what it means to be human. This activity is social and has an impact on the environment around us. Spaces become places as they generate value for playful behaviour. In cities we see an increase in large scale privatisation and a loss of public life. In these private spaces, humans need to follow rules. Often this excludes play. Is that everywhere so or do other cultures value play in the city differently. In our western society we like to create special places for play. Compartmentalise, regulate and control as much activity as possible. However given that play is a human right and could by nature happen everywhere I ask myself why is that so and why can’t we be more playful in the city?

Play could solve a lot of problems in cities? As we know from child play, with an increase in automobile traffic we changed the perception of safety in adults, resulting in spatial restrictions of play in the public realm and in the neighbourhood street. Very dense urban environments marginalise play, it becomes internalised. Mental health and physical activity behaviour changes and generates in combination with bad diets a serious public health issue. If we acknowledge play as a human right for all we can find a pathway to create healthy cities.

The play instinct is in all of us and can be unleashed by the flow experience through all five senses. Hearing, seeing, smelling, touching and feeling can be experienced in space. If one revisits the concept of what noise level, amenities, smells, materials and feelings are positive towards play and pleasant play experience, we could find indicators/ determinants for positive play experiences in cities spaces. Based on playful human interaction they could become valued and if they are valued, they become meaningful and people start caring for them. This can result in social inclusion and social capital in neighbourhoods as part of everyday life.

My thoughts on culture:

The culture of dwelling, means in German “Baukultur”, the culture of constructing. The way we construct our environment is a result of our thinking, which translated into words/ language. Transmitting language from one human being to another enables us to share an experience and to construct a common understanding. This understanding can result into action, allowing us to shape the environment around us. The way we do that can be referred as  dwelling (Heidegger). Heidegger describes interlinks building with dwelling and dwelling means to him “the manner in which mortals are on the earth.”  Further he notes that “building as dwelling unfolds into the building that cultivates growing things and the building that erects buildings” (p.350). Dwelling does include the environment as “earth and sky, divinities and mortals- belong together in one.” (p.351) He concludes “What we take under our care must be kept safe.”

Heideggers highlights that “space is in essence that for which room has been made, that which is let into its bounds….space receive their essential beings from locals and not from “space”.

More notes on city:

The city is “a state of mind, a body of customs and traditions, and of the organized attitudes and sentiments that inhere in these customs and are transmitted with this tradition.” Further its noted that a city is not just “merely a physical mechanism and an artificial construction. It is involved in the vital process of the people who compose it; it is a product of nature, and particularly of human nature.”  (Park and Burgess, the city, 1970, p.1)

Research term: Dialectic –> try to find definition and apply to research problem!!

Good paper to inform the method:

The right space at the right time: The relationship between children’s
physical activity and land use/land cover

Grant application for German research form

Applications open on 4 April 2016 and close on 17 June 2016. Applicants will be informed of the outcomes in writing in November 2016. Project funding will commence in 2017.

The application form is available to download here (DOCX 832.6KB).

Meeting with Andrew in regards to mid term review on 6th April –> result blog post on research plan

GIS workshop all day on 8th April 2016