Week 44: 12th- 16th December 2016

In a philosophical conversation with Mo over the weekend – he made me aware of the philosophy of signs. On the basis that this research project is looking into physical traces in the built environment I’ve looked a bit further into it and found the following useful:

Culler, J. (2001). The Pursuit of Signs. Routledge, London and New York.

Foucault, M. (1966). Les Mots et le choses. Paris, Gallimard, p.15

Structuralist and semiotic thinking has been repeatedly labelled ‘antihumanistic’, and Michel Foucault has provided a target for such attacks in maintaining that ‘man is only a recent invention, a figure not yet two centuries old, a simple fold in our knowledge’ which will soon disappear. Michel Foucault, Les Mots et le choses, Paris, Gallimard, 1966, p.15 in P. 36 in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

Indeed, we often think of the meaning of an expression as what the subject or speaker ‘has in mind’. But as meaning is explained in terms of systems of signs- systems which the subject does not control- the subject is deprived of his role as a source of meaning. P. 36-37 in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

Meanings cannot be imposed unless they are understood, unless the conventions which make possible understanding are already in place. P. 44 in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

Jacques Derrida calls the ‘logocentrism’ of Western culture: the rationality which treats meanings as concepts or logical representations that it is the function of signs to express. We speak, for example, of various ways of saying ‘the same thing’ p. 44 in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

The pursuit of semiotics leads to an awareness of its limits, to an awareness that signification can never be mastered by a coherent and comprehensive theory, should not be reason for spurning its analytical programs as if there were some more valid or comprehensive perspective on signification. P.47-48. in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

The institution of literature involves interpretive practices, techniques for making sense of literary works, which it ought to be possible to describe. Instead of attempting to legislate solutions to interpretive disagreements, one might attempt to analyse the interpretive operations that produce these disagreements- discord which is part of the literary activity of our culture. P. 52 in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

–> aegis of semiotics that seeks to identify the conventions and operations by which any signifying practice (literature) produces its observable effect of meaning.

One should seek ways to analyse the work as an objective artefact. P. 53 in Culler J. (2001) The Pursuit of Signs, Routledge, London and New York.

Semiotic program may be better expressed by Karl Popper –> he talks about artifacts

 Why is Lefebvres “Right to the city” today relevant?

  • Back when he wrote about the concept at the end of the 1960’s the western world was dominated by a power imbalance. Government were heavily involved in top-down planning programs, which led to suppression of the option of the masses. Capital through developers rolled out mass housing projects. This neoliberal modernism was critiqued by him.
  • Today the landscape has changed, many government have insufficient funds in order to operate well. The private sector enjoy due to favorable political environments unprecedented power in decision making processes. One may argue we are living in an environment were the capital has gone on steroids- modernism reloaded. Within the city context large scale urban renewal projects being quickly rolled out and meaningful engagement often takes place on a tokenistic level. As a consequence people feel disempowered and overruled. The city vision is not shared resulting in conflicts.
  • I’d like to conclude that Lefebvres concept of “Right to the city” is today even more important than ever before.


Refining the play definition and categories

I’ve tried now to verify my classifications of play in relation to the definition by superimposing the findings from the pilot phase.

By doing so I came to the conclusion that not all activities observed are covered by all elements of play in the definition. Although I would classify them as playful as they are in line with Callouis classifications, there must be some level of what must be met and what is an option.

Point of origin

Play is an intrinsic induced activity, that constitutes freedom, based on the acceptance of risk in its temporary transformational nature. It includes attributes such as spontaneity, curiosity, voluntary and creative processes that occur outside of the ordinary. This purposeless activity is necessary to the human identity as an exploratory pursuit of pleasure and comfort outside of social purpose.

New amended version

Play is an voluntary intrinsic induced activity (or with a degree of extrinsic motivation), that constitutes freedom through enjoyment, based on the acceptance of risk in its temporary transformational nature. Associated attributes such as spontaneity, curiosity, creative processes and purposeless can support this activity as it situated outside of the ordinary. This activity is necessary to the human identity as an exploratory pursuit of enjoyment outside of social purpose.

For orientation purpose

Playful interaction (definition in Tieben, R., Sturm, J., Bekker, T., Schouten, B. (2014). Playful persuasion: Designing for ambient playful interactions in public spaces. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments 6, 341-357, DOI 10.3233/AIS-140265, IOS Press.):
Interacting in a playful way in order to elicit explorative, social and enjoyable behaviour. (from Bekker, M.M., Sturm, J., Eggen, J.H. (2010) Designing playful interactions for social interactions and physical play. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 14(5), 285-296.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Intrinsic motivation refers to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the activity itself, while extrinsic motivation refers to the performing of an activity in order to attain some separable outcome. (from Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist. 55, 68-78.)

Theories such as self-determination theory are helpful in gaining a better understanding of the influences of such types.

Theoretical thought:

The more people play the higher the production function of a space!

Human rights and healthy environments paper (Kruger, T.M., Savage C.E., Newsham, P. (2015). Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue, The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol 80(1), 27-40, DOI: 10.1177/0091415015591108

by using the framework of human rights to advocate for policies and practices that protect older adults and promote high quality of life in that segment of the population, efforts can and should include attention to the natural environment and sustainability effort. p.29-30.

Morgan and David’s work from 2002 has been referenced as a useful overview on human rights documents. Two articles were identified as relevant to promote quality of life for older adults (article 25.1, article 27.1)

‘Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being of himself (sic) and of his (sic) family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or the lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his (sic) control.’ (Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, 1948, article 25.1)

‘Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits’. (UDHR, 1948, article 27.1)

‘Older adults might have skills that younger generation lack (e.g. gardening).’ p. 36

‘Researchers should develop interventions that target multiple generations for sustainable behavior increases; these interventions should also be investigated using the lens of human rights.’ p. 36



Week 23: 18th- July to 22nd July 2016

Pokemon Go effect

Is Pokemon Go play? Depends on definition. The activity is transforming space and time, creation of an alternative reality with temporary nature. It has clear rules to follow (structured play) but to a degree self- directed as player can choose his route and where to go.

How does Pokemon Go functions as playful behaviour in relation to the triad of space:

  • People move in the perceived realm.
  • The game is constructed in conceived space by web architects
  • The experience will have an impact in the lived space in form of memory.


  • People are more physical active in the public domain
  • people create more passive surveillance
  • populate streets and parks more often
  • they play more


  • the memory may not generate value in the perceived realm. It distorts the quality of the perceived realm with reference to social connectivity.
  • unable to engage in the perceived realm to 100 percent, accidents and safety issues
  • walking zombie effect (random people stay alone)
  • excludes people without mobile devices
  • Commercial  benefits (people drop a nest in their shop, that increased visitors and thy will consume more) –> ideal product of a neo-liberal age (purchase mobile device, create software, visual merchandise, steer indirect human behaviour)
  • people can get addicted and lost/ sick


Pokemon Go news:

‘Pokemon Go’ Players Nearly Caught A Bullet After Being Confused For Burglars

Table for playful behaviour analysis during fieldwork

fieldwork play types can be downloaded here.


Sutton-Smith (1997). The Ambiguity of Play

The main tenet of the rhetoric of progress is that adulthood and childhood are quite separate, childhood being innocent, nonsexual and dependent (Benedict, 1938). It said that children’s and adults’ play are also quite different, that of children being open, cor creative, and that of adults being closed, or recreative. The desire for children to make progress in development and schooling has led to play’s being considered either a waste of time (the view of educational “conservatives”) or a form of children’s work (the belief of educational “progressives”). The one view is that play is not usefully adaptive, the other is that it is. p. 19

In relation to play culture of children

Most play studies in the first half of the twentieth century have been of the normative kind (Herron and Sutton-Smith, 1971). Even in the great original work of Piaget, Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood (1951),in which play is harnessed to cognitive development is laid before us primarily as a set of stages through which children must proceed both in cognition and in play. p.36

Developmental psychologies focused on mapping the increase complexity of the human organism.

“Within that inner life, play is a mental process that builds upon and integrates many other processes in the developing child’s mind- thinking, imagining, pretending, planning, wondering, doubting, remembering, guessing, hoping, experimenting, redoing and working through. The child at play, using these varied mental processes, integrates past experiences and current feelings and desires.” p.37

“I believe that play is the most ideally effective form of developmental aid because the child becomes familiar with the world, himself and his limits. p.37

Higher forms of play, as judging by imaginative or verbal complexity, are again and again correlated with higher forms of school-related social or educational sucess (Howes, 1992). p.39

Metanalyss of these multiple disparate studies, showing that play contributes to early development by enhancing adjustment and reducing language problems and socioemotional difficulties, with variances ranging between 33 percent to 67 percent (Fisher, 1992). p.39

Longitudinal research showing that the more interesting and fulfilling lives are those in which playfulness was kept at the center of things (Erikson, 1972; quoted by Bruner, Jolly, and Sylva, 1976, p.17). p.39

It seems that play is seldom the only determinant of any of the important forms of learning that occur in young children. Even if it does function in any such a way, it is only one of multiple influences (Christie, 1991). p. 41

The evidence of play studies and game studies is that complexity in play is highly correlated with age. So given this correlation, it is an easy mistake to believe that the major purpose of play development is to contribute to other kinds of age-related development- social, emotional, and cognitive. p.42

Another factor, which receives less attention and also confuses the relationship between play and development, is the finding that children appear to develop play skills through play, which enables them to go on playing with other children, thus substantially increasing their happiness. Sometimes their play skills enable them to become so competent that they go on to play on representative teams, to travel to other towns, cities, in games. p. 43

More generally, play skills become the basis of enduring friendships and social relationships and also offer a way of becoming involved with other children when shifting to new communities. Obviously this is also true for adults. Play is of direct value to those who are successful in their play. p. 43

Children are so motivated to be accepted in play that they make sacrifices of egocentricity for membership in the group. In addition there are ethnographic playground accounts, such as those of Hughes (1983) and Beresin (1993), that reveal that a great variety of social subtleties- about group membership and group power- are being learned and exercised in playgrounds. (…) Children do learn how to play on playgrounds and at other play places. p.44



The inability to play, as in case of mental illness or in highly stressful circumstances. What is remarkable is how some healthy individuals manage often to play in stressful circumstance (Eisen, 1988). p.45

Play as pathology; as in case of gambling addiction or in rigid forms of self-limiting repetitive behaviour; as seen in pathological patients or in those with character defects who confine themselves, to regressive or sadistic play forms (Brown, 1994, Slade and Wolf, 1994). p.45

Play as a form of security, as is typical of what have been called “low players”, persons who are anxious or aggressive in their expressive behaviour and confine themselves to repetitive and minimally expressive forms of play (Fein and Kinnex, 1994). p.45

Play as stereotypic. Most play forms are highly stereotypic, form house play to crossword puzzle to team sport. The are the typical play forms of persons with average to complex playing capacity. Their games are culturally self-satisfying vehicles and increase the enjoyment in the lives of those who play them (Meckley, 1994). p.45

playful forms of play. these are the games who have a creative capacity for playing. Typically this is demonstrated by the variety and complexity of playful transformations of which the players are capable, and by their ability to convert their own playful characteristics into play scenarios for others. p.46

Old and young

What are the reasons for adult play? Erikson (1956), one of the few even consider the matter, has suggested that while the child goes forward in his play, the adult goes sideways. This apparently means that children are growing up while they are playing and adults are not. Presumably adults have already grown up, so the supposed growth virtues of play are irrelevant. If play is a preparation for maturity (Gross, 1976), then what are the maturing doing when they play? Are they preparing for death? Perhaps they are not preparing for anything. p.47

a play theory that is only about progress and deals only with some small part of the population (children) could hardly claim to be encompassing one. If it could be believed that elders do not play at all (as was often originally supposed both for animals and humans), then the rhetoric of progress would hold some cogency. It has indeed long been maintained that adult festivals, carnivals, sports, and parades are not play but merely entertainments or recreations. But this seems to be  a disguise of decreasing credibility. (..) must grasp this strange companionship of the very young with the very old. In all these cases play seems to have more to do with waiting than preparing, more to do with boredom than with rehearsal, more to do with keeping up one’s spirit than with depression. p.48

Validations and Definitions

To the hegemony of adults over children revealed in the way in which the theories provide rationalization for the adult control of children’s play: to stimulate it, negate it, exclude it or encourage limited form of it. p49

The definitions of play given by child players themselves generally center on having fun, being outdoors, being with friends, choosing freely, not working, pretending, enacting, fantasy and drama, and playing games (King, 1979, Kaarby, 1986). There is little or no emphasis on the kind of growth that adults have in mind with their progress rhetoric. The children’s rhetoric is by large similar to that adopted by adults in the rhetoric’s of the self, which are about play as some kind of valued personal experience, so the children are probably echoing those modern public adult scripts. p. 49

No contradiction between ‘assuming that players play for intrinsic personal motivational reasons and that the effects of such play are useful for the extrinsics of other kinds of adaptation. p 50

Fagen reviewed play defintions of 37 authors (1981, pp.500-504).

extrinsic academic, social, moral, physical, and cognitive play functions, with  a progress- oriented thrust, have been the major focus of most child play scientists seeking to demonstrate that play is the practice of real-life adaptive skills for survival (biological emphasis), that it can ensure feelings of mastery and competency through conflict resolution and compensatory activity (psychogenic emphasis), and more recently, that it can develop skills for cognitive and education (cognitive emphasis).

all assume that play does indeed transfer to some other kinds of progress that are not in themselves forms of play. p.51

All confirm that extrinsic theories focused on the field of child play and dominated the rhetoric of progress. p.51

so far there is no marked clarification of their similiarities or differences.p.51

Play is an irrational act of gaining pleasure through one’s own illusions. p.54

‘Calling the mastery of play in childhood or adulthood forms of hallucination or illusion is itself an epistemological discourse that implies something defective about them. (…) Given that there is nothing more characteristic of human achievement than the creation of illusory cultural and theoretical worlds, as in music, dance, literature, and science, then children’s and gamblers’ full participation in such play worlds can be seen not as defect, or as compensation for inadequacy, but rather than illusory worlds highlights this move towards a more positive, if narrower, epistemological attitude about their function. As we now see the creating of human meanings as a central to human culture, we can give more primary appreciation to these manifestations in our artists, our children, and our gamblers (Hymes, 1974). We might borrow from Steiner the view that the issue is no longer whether here is superior reality versus inferior play, but whether the play is itself merely ordinary or as a case of “brilliant virtuality” (1995). The rhetoric of fate is a real threat to the rhetoric of progress, because the concept of virtuality promises to put adults and children in the same ludic world. –> Pokemon Go  or digital transformation p.54-55

O’Flaherty , W.D. (1984). Dreams, Illusion and other Realities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. –> about the ways in which they are alike, the ways in which they are different, and what each teaches us about reality. Transformation of some sort or another are the heart of myths –> p.3

She highlights an excurse into Hindu mythology: The world is at play in the hands of the gods, and dreaming and playfulness are forms of reality treated as seriously as the so-called commonsense world. Play, like dreams, is not a secondary state of reality as it is with us but has primacy as a form of knowing. She says further “In India the realm of mental image is not on the defensive. Commonsense has a powerful lobby there, as it has with us, but it does not always have everything its own way. Reality has to share the burden of proof with unreality in India, and it is by no means a foregone conclusion that reality will win.” p.304

Handelman, D.(1992) Passages to play: Paradox and process. Play and Culture 5(1):1-19 states on the matter:

“In Indian cosmology, play is a top town idea. Passages to play and their premises are embedded at a high level of abstraction and generality. The qualities of play resonate and resound throughout the whole. But more than this, qualities of play are integral to the very operation of the cosmos. To be in play is to reproduce time and again the very premises that inform the existence of this kind of cosmos…Now in cosmologies where premises of play are not embedded at a high level and are not integral to the organization of the cosmos, as in Western society, the phenomenon of play seems to erupt from the bottom. By bottom up play I mean that play often is phrased in opposition to, or as a negation of, the order of things. This is the perception of play as unserious, illusory and ephemeral, but it is also the perception of play as subversive and resisting the order of things. (p.12)

Schechner, R. (1988) Playing. Play and Culture 1(1):3-27; echos O’Flaherty and confirms that play in the Western world is considered something low in status compared to Hindu culture as the divine process of creation. In western culture we consider play as not real, but in Hindu culture it is one of multiple realities, all transformable into each other. Further he notes that playing is for us as for the Hindus – a creative destabilizing action that frequently does not declare its existence, even less its intentions. Playing is a mood, and attitude, a force. It erupts or one falls into it. It may persist for a long time as specific games, rites, and artistic performances do- or it comes and goes suddenly- as wisecrack, an ironic glimpse of things, as bend of crack in behaviour…It is wrong to think of playing as the interruption of the ordinary life. Consider instead playing as the underlying, always there, continuum of experience…Ordinary life is netted out of playing but playing continually squeezes through even the smallest holes of the work net…work and other activities constantly feed on the underlying ground of playing, using the play mood for refreshment, energy, unusual ways of turning things around, insights, breaks, opening and especially looseness. pp.16-18









Week 18: 14th – 17th June 2016

It has been quite a short but intense week. Major outputs were the submission of the DAAD UA 2016 grant application as well as the submission of the Ethics application.

Outcomes of the ethics can be expected by the end of the month. As for the DAAD and UA application results will be announced by November 2016.

Concurrent I am carrying out my literature review and was able to obtain further “rare” literature. In particular “Play of Man” by Karl Groos 1901 is quite a useful resource:

Literature: The play of man, Karl Groos

Carrying a walking- stick is another playful satisfaction in which the hand’s sensation of contact has a part. P.10

Water affords the delightful sensations of touch; in the bath of course, enjoyment of the movements and temperature is more conspicuous, but the soothing gentleness of the moist element is not to be despised.

As in all specialised pleasures, intensive emotion betrays itself.

Sensation of temperature

The stimulus of heat and cold is conspicuous, as ices and permint, hot grog, spices, and spirits witness. P.14

Sensation of taste




characterised as internal imitative creation. The purest, highest and most spontaneous pleasure is that in which we have no thought for the artist, but yield ourselves whole-heartedly to the beautiful object.


Power of rhythm (p.28)

Enjoyment of melody as a mental fusion of two kinds of association, one is the analogue of pleasing movement in space and the other one is the vocal expression of mental and emotional processes. Together both can create a new entity – an alternative reality.

Schopenhauer: nothing else produces the “idea of movement” in such purity and freedom as tone-beats.

Köstlin Aesthetik, p. 560: “glides, turns, twists, hops, leaps, jumps up and down, dances, bows, sways, climbs, quivers, blusters, and storms, all with equal ease, while in order to reproduce it in the physical world a man would have to dash himself to pieces or in some way become imponderable.”

The magic part of music is that our consciousness repeats, in voluntary and persistently, the varying dance of tones, and feed from all incumbrances, floats blissfully in boundless space p.28 f.

It is a kind of language, which the soul’s deepest emotions seek expression.

There are many points of resemblance between melody and the verbal expression of feelings. P.29

Focus on the enjoyment of melodies rather the origin of music. Thunder sounds like an angry voice. The song of birds provides us clues about their identifiable likeness between their vocal expression of emotion and the songs that call for the most direct response.p. 29 f.

children enjoy rhythm from very early age. Most songs for children originate from grown people and are childish in character and include elements that resonate with children most. p. 39

pleasure in overcoming difficulties is an essential feature of all play. p.39

playful experimentation becomes the mother of invention and of discovery.

On colours

Child display more interest in warmer colours such as red, yellow than colder ones. p.55

Movement as play

Perception of movement by means of the eye alone, and consequently the instinct of keeping absolutely motionless. P. 67

Practice is necessary for the mastery of this capacity. p.68

Fröbel described the pleasure of success which, together with gratification of instinctive impulse, makes learning to walk such a satisfaction. p.82

“As it becomes more mechanical, walking loses its playful character. Pleasure in simple locomotion is experienced by adults, as a rule, only when the discharge of their motor impulses has been hindered by a sedentary life, and even then motion is not the chief source of satisfaction. The regular rhythm of walking acts like a narcotic on an excited mind, which reacts to it unconsciously.” p.82

“exciting movement play which possesses, in common with other narcotics, the magic power of abstracting us from commonplace existence and transporting us to a self-created world of dreams.” p.91

“The simplest effects being a kind of anaesthesia, relaxation of all tension, unconsciousness of fatigue, and the illusion of being free from bodily weight, like a spirit floating about in space.”  p.91

“This illusion in itself productive of great enjoyment, explains our pleasure in such dances as we are considering.” p.91

“The hammock in cases can be considered as the prototype of the swing. The Brazilian Bakairi that the men when at home spend most of their time swinging in hammocks. Greeks has several forms of the swing, among them the joggling board, consisting of a flexible plank supported at its ends on fixed beams, and the ropes swing which with its comfortable seat supported by four cords was used by adults.”p.93

“In Athens celebrates an special holiday called after the swing. Pleasure in riding and driving being partly due to the control we have over the horses, such enjoyment is a combination of active and passive. Even when we are steering a boat the illusion is easily supported that we are to some extend responsible for its progress. Riding has other elements of attraction: besides the forward motion and lofty seat there is some peculiar enjoyment of each particular gait.” p. 94

Otto “Lilienthal recalls his experience of gliding through the air in a slanting direction affords a new and delightful sensation.”p. 94

6 different groups of movement play resulting from impulse (p.95):

  1. Mere “hustling”things about
  2. destructive or analytical play
  3. constructive or synthetic play
  4. plays of endurance
  5. throwing plays
  6. catching plays.

to 1. Exemplar cases: tearing paper, pleasure in shaking a well-fitted purse, turning handle on a coffee mill, pulling out drawers, handling smooth sand and clay.

Provides instance joy –> conspicuous in all play of this class

All connected with senses –> seeing, hearing, tactile play, desire for sensory excitement p.96 f.

To 2. Handling of external objects (toys) p. 97 f.

To 3. Constructive (synthetic) movement- play: similar to analytic play bears to the fighting instinct. p.99

This includes collecting things, or combative emulative spirit which is active in almost all play.p.101

To 4.



Schiller called play “aimless expenditure of exuberant strength, which is its own excuse for action. P.362


Herbert Spence characterised play in his work “Principles of Psychology” as a first attempted a scientific formulation of the theory, “nerve processes, that the superfluous integration of ganglion cells should be accompanied by an inherited readiness to discharge. As a result of the advanced development of man and the higher animals they have, first, more force than is needed in the struggle for existence; and second, are able to allow some of their powers longer periods of rest while others are being exercised, and thus results the aimless activity which we call play, and which is agreeable to the individual producing it.” p. 362

Its is a question about the origin of special forms of play must be answered.

Not imitation, but the life of impulse and instinct alone can make special forms of play comprehensible to us.

“The surplus energy theory assumes in the higher forms of life a series of inborn impulses for whose serious activity there is often for a longer time no opportunity of discharge, with the result that a reserve of exuberant strength collects forth an ideal satisfaction of the impulse, or play.” P. 363


“When we are tired of mental or physical labour and still do not wish to sleep or rest, we gladly welcome the active recreation afforded by play.” P. 364


Play can transcend its limits p. 364

“play is often begun in the absence of superabundant energy.” P.366

In our busy life, occupied as it is with the struggle for existence, we see substantial aims before us which we wish to realize as soon as possible, but we realize its power when a man steps aside from his strenuous business life.” P.366


Play is a distraction form the commonplace world. P.367

Play is repetition “endless delight putting rubber on a pencil and off again, each act being a new stimulus to the eye.” P.367

He concludes that “this impulse toward repetition is doubtless the physiological reason for carrying on play to the utmost limit of strength. The second point to be noticed is the trance-like state resulting from such repetition of some movements, and something with the added influence of rhythm.” P.367 f.

Groos concluded that “adult play must be considered from a biological standpoint. That the grown man long plays after he has outgrown the childish stimuli to play has been sufficiently shown” p. 378

movements, fighting, social play in adulthood is indispensable. artistic enjoyment is the highest and most valuable form of adult play. p.378 f.

Art is the capacity possessed by men of furnishing themselves and others with pleasure based on conscious, self-illusion which, by widening and deepening human perception and emotion, tends to preserve and improve the race.” p.379

Groos stresses further: “Play of adults has a still mote specialized significance, since, as it would be essential to a well-rounded culture, its office as preserver of hereditary race capacities.” p.379

Even the noble gift of imagination may from overindulgence degenerate into a deadly poison. p. 406








Week 15: 23rd May- 27th May 2016

Types of play

Other procedures focus on the observation of various types of play (e.g., manipulative play; constructive play; and symbolic play, also referred to as fantasy play or pretend play; Enslein & Fein, 1981; Warren, Oppenheim, & Emde, 1996).

Structuring the literature

Papers on mental health and play

  • Vallée, J., E. Cadot, C. Roustit, I. Parizot and P. Chauvin (2011). “The role of daily mobility in mental health inequalities: The interactive influence of activity space and neighbourhood of residence on depression.” Social Science & Medicine 73(8): 1133-1144.
  • Simmel G, 1950, “The metropolis and mental life”, in The Sociology of Georg Simmel Ed. K Wolff
    (The Free Press, New York) pp 409 ^ 424
  • Latkin, C. A. and A. D. Curry (2003). “Stressful Neighborhoods and Depression: A Prospective Study of the Impact of Neighborhood Disorder.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 44(1): 34-44.
  • Gariepy, G., J. S. Kaufman, A. Blair, Y. Kestens and N. Schmitz (2015). “Place and health in diabetes: the neighbourhood environment and risk of depression in adults with Type 2 diabetes.” Diabetic Medicine 32(7): 944-950.
  • Miles, R., C. Coutts and A. Mohamadi (2012). “Neighborhood Urban Form, Social Environment, and Depression.” Journal of Urban Health 89(1): 1-18.
  • Gariepy, G., B. D. Thombs, Y. Kestens, J. S. Kaufman, A. Blair and N. Schmitz (2015). “The Neighbourhood Built Environment and Trajectories of Depression Symptom Episodes in Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis: e0133603.” PLoS One 10(7).
  • Salmon, A. K. (2015). “Learning by thinking during play: The power of reflection to aid performance.” Early Child Development and Care: 1-17.
  • Mol Lous, A. (2000). “Depression and Play in Early Childhood: Play Behavior of Depressed and Nondepressed.” Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders 8(4): 249. –> Depressed children showed significantly more non play behavior than their non depressed counterparts
  • Rye, N. (2008). “Play therapy as a mental health intervention for children and adolescents: play therapy has much to offer children who have had traumatic experiences or suffer from mental health and other problems. Play therapist Nina Rye explains.” The journal of family health care 18(1): 17.
  • Mol Lous, A. (2000). “Depression and Play in Early Childhood: Play Behavior of Depressed and Nondepressed.” Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders 8(4): 249.
  • Gump, P. V. (1975). Ecological psychology and children.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. and J. LeFevre (1989). “Optimal experience in work and leisure.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56(5): 815-822.
  • Conn, S. A. (1998). “Living in the Earth: Ecopsychology, health and psychotherapy.” The Humanistic Psychologist 26(1-3): 179-198.
  • Alexander, S. A., K. L. Frohlich and C. Fusco (2014). “Playing for health? Revisiting health promotion to examine the emerging public health position on children’s play.” Health Promot Int 29(1): 155-164.
  • Alexander, S. A., K. L. Frohlich and C. Fusco (2014). “‘Active play may be lots of fun, but it’s certainly not frivolous’: the emergence of active play as a health practice in Canadian public health.” Sociol Health Illn 36(8): 1188-1204.
  • Ofonedu, M. E., W. H. Percy, A. Harris-Britt and H. M. E. Belcher (2013). “Depression in Inner City African American Youth: A Phenomenological Study.” Journal of Child and Family Studies 22(1): 96-106.

Papers on physical activity and play

  • Biddle, S. J., S. J. Marshall, P. J. Gorely, A. Cameron and I. D. Murdey (2003). “Sedentary behaviour, body fatness and physical activity in youth: a meta-analysis.” Med Sci Sports Exerc 25.
  • KK, D. and L. CT (2006). Do attributes of the physical environment influence children’s physical activity? A review of the literature. , Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act.
  • Richardson, S., M. Prior, S. Richardson and M. Prior (2005). No time to lose: the well-being of Australia’s children.
  • Jago, R., R. Brockman, K. R. Fox, K. Cartwright, A. S. Page and J. L. Thompson (2009). “Friendship groups and physical activity: Qualitative findings on how physical activity is initiated.” IJBNPA 6.
  • Sallis, J. F., J. J. Prochaska and W. C. Taylor (2000). “A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32.
  • Holt, N. L., J. C. Spence, Z. L. Sehn and N. Cutumisu (2008). “Neighborhood and developmental differences in children’s perceptions of opportunities for play and physical activity.” Health and Place 14(1): 2-14.
  • Trost, S. G., R. R. Pate, J. F. Sallis, P. S. Freedson, W. C. Taylor, M. Dowda and J. Sirad (2002). “Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth.” Med Sci Sports Exerc 34.
  • Simons-Morton, B. G., N. M. O’Hara, G. S. Parcel, I. W. Huang, T. Baranowski and B. Wilson (1990). “Children’s frequency of participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities.” Res Q Exerc Sport 61.
  • Salmon, J., A. Timperio, A. Telford, A. Carver and D. Crawford (2005). “Association of family environment with children’s television viewing and with low level of physical activity.” Obesity Res 13.
  • Salmon, J., N. Owen, D. Crawford, A. Bauman and J. F. Sallis (2003). “Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference.” Health Psychology 22.
  • Salmon, J., K. Ball, D. Crawford, M. Booth, A. Telford, C. Hume, D. Jolley and A. Worsley (2005). “Reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity among 10-year-old children: Overview and process evaluation of the ‘Switch-Play’ intervention.” Health Promotion International 20(1): 7-17.
  • Riddoch, C. J., C. Mattocks, K. Deere, J. Saunders, J. Kirkby, K. Tilling, S. D. Leary, S. N. Blair and A. R. Ness (2007). “Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity.” Arch Dis Child 92.
  • Pangrazi, R. P. (2000). “Promoting physical activity for youth.” The ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal 47.
  • Gubbels, J. S., D. H. Van Kann and M. W. Jansen (2012). “Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children’s activity levels at childcare.” J Environ Public Health 2012: 326520.
  • Burdette, H., R. Whitaker and S. Daniels (2004). “Parental report of outdoor playtime as a measure of physical activity in preschool-aged children.” Archives of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine 158.
  • Broekhuizen, K., A.-M. Scholten and S. I. d. Vries (2014). “The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level: a systematic review.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Actitvity 11(59).
  • Brockman, R., R. Jago, K. R. Fox, J. L. Thompson, K. Cartwright and A. S. Page (2009). “”Get off the sofa and go and play”: family and socioeconomic influences on the physical activity of 10-11 year old children.” BMC Public Health 9.
  • Holt, N. L., C.-T. Cunningham, Z. L. Sehn, J. C. Spence, A. S. Newton and G. D. C. Ball (2009). “Neighborhood physical activity opportunities for inner-city children and youth.” Health and Place 15(4): 1022-1028.

Papers on mobility and play

  • Page, A. S., A. R. Cooper, P. J. Griew and R. Jago (2010). “Independent mobility, perceptions of the built environment and children’s participation in play, active travel and structured exercise and sport: the PEACH Project.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 7.
  • Owen, N., N. Humpel, E. Leslie, A. Bauman and J. F. Sallis (2004). “Understanding environmental influences on walking: review and research agenda.” Am J Prev Med 27.
  • O’Brien, M., D. Jones and M. Rustin (2000). “Children’s independent spatial mobility in the public realm.” Childhood 7.
  • Giles-Corti, B., M. H. Broomhall, M. Knuiman, C. Collins, K. Douglas, K. Ng, A. Lange and R. J. Donovan (2005). “Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space?” Am J Prev Med 28.
  • Eckersley, R., A. Wierenga and J. Wyn (2006). Flashpoints and signposts: pathways to success and wellbeing for Australia’s young people.
  • Carver, A., J. Salmon, K. Campbell, L. Baur, S. Garnett and D. Crawford (2005). “How do perceptions of local neighbourhoods relate to adolescents’ walking and cycling?” Am J Health Promot 20.
  • Wen, L. M., J. Kite, D. Merom and C. Rissel (2009). “Time spent playing outdoors after school and its relationship with independent mobility: a cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-12 years in Sydney, Australia.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 6.
  • Nikolopoulou, M., K. Martin and B. Dalton (2016). “Shaping pedestrian movement through playful interventions in security planning: what do field surveys suggest?” Journal of Urban Design 21(1): 84-104.

Books and papers on social everyday life

  • Outhwaite, W. (1975). Understanding Social Life.
  • Malone, K., L. Hasluck and L. Chawla (2002). Growing up in an urbanising world.
  • Gilbert, A., S. L. Goldberg and F. B. Smith (1988). Australian cultural history.
  • Gehl, J., B. Svarre and K. A. Steenhard (2013). How to study public life. Washington, DC, Island Press.
  • Bowes, J. and J. Bowes (2004). Children, families & communities: contexts and consequences.
  • Bourdieu P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press.
  • Borowski, A., S. Encel, E. Ozanne, A. Borowski, S. Encel and E. Ozanne (1997). Ageing and social policy in Australia.
  • Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York Random House.
  • Sampson, R. J., J. D. Morenoff and T. Gannon-Rowley (2002). “Assessing “Neighborhood Effects”: Social Processes and New Directions in Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 28(1): 443-478.
  • Hillier B, Hanson J, 1984 The Social Logic of Space (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)

Papers on environment and play

Environmental Perception
  • Gibson J, 1979 The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA).
  • Scheflen A, 1972 Body Language and Social Order (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ)
  • Scheflen A, 1976 Human Territories: HowWe Behave in Space ^ Time (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ)
  • Merleau-Ponty, M. 1958. Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge.
  • Kaplan, S. and R. Kaplan (1982). Cognition and environment: functioning in an uncertain world. New York, Praeger.
  • Veitch, J., S. Bagley, K. Ball and J. Salmon (2006). “Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children’s active free-play.” Health & Place 12(4): 383-393.
  • Veitch, J., J. Salmon and K. Ball (2007). “Children’s Perceptions of the Use of Public Open Spaces for Active Free-play.” Children’s Geographies 5(4): 409-422.
  • Timperio, A., D. Crawford, A. Telford and J. Salmon (2004). “Perceptions about the local neighborhood and walking and cycling among children.” Prev Med 38.
  • Thomson, J. L. and C. Philo (2004). “Playful spaces? A social geography of children’s play in Livingston, Scotland.” Children’s Geographies 2.
  • Spencer, K. H. and P. M. Wright (2014). Quality Outdoor Play Spaces for Young Children. Young Children, National Association for the Education of Young Children.: 28-34.
  • Powell, D. (1993). Out west: perceptions of Sydney’s western suburbs.
  • Peri Bader, A. (2015). “A model for everyday experience of the built environment: the embodied perception of architecture.” The Journal of Architecture 20(2): 244-267.
  • Morrow, V. (2001). “Using qualitative methods to elicit young people’s perspectives on their environments: some ideas for community health initiatives.” Health Educ Res 16.
  • Halseth, G. and J. Doddridge (2000). “Children’s cognitive mapping: a potential tool for neighbourhood planning.” Environment and planning B: planning and design 27(4): 565-582.
  • Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
  • Burgmanis, Ģ., Z. Krišjāne and J. Šķilters (2014). “Acquisition of spatial knowledge in different urban areas: evidence from a survey analysis of adolescents.” Cognitive Processing 15(3): 373-383.
  • Brockman, R., R. Jago and K. R. Fox (2011). “Children’s active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators.” BMC Public Health 11(1): 1-7.
  • Bringolf-Isler, B., L. Grize, U. Mader, N. Ruch, F. H. Sennhauser, C. Braun-Fahrlander and S. team (2010). “Built environment, parents’ perception, and children’s vigorous outdoor play.” Prev Med 50(5-6): 251-256.
Perceived safety
  • Carver, A., A. Timperio and D. Crawford (2008). “Playing it safe: The influence of neighbourhood safety on children’s physical activity—A review.” Health & Place 14(2): 217-227.
  • Valentine, G. and J. McKendrick (1997). “Children’s outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children’s safety and the changing nature of childhood.” Geoforum 28.
  • Tucker, F. and H. Matthews (2001). “”They don’t like girls hanging around there”: conflicts over recreational space in rural Northamptonshire.” Area 33.
  • Jago, R., R. Brockman, J. L. Thompson, R. Fox and A. Page (2009). Licence to be active: Parental concerns and 10-11 year old children’s ability to be independently active. Journal of Public Health.
  • Ferraro, K. F. (1995). Fear of crime: interpreting victimization risk. Albany, NY, SUNY Press.
  • Carver, A., A. Timperio and D. Crawford (2008). “Playing it safe: The influence of neighbourhood safety on children’s physical activity—A review.” Health & Place 14(2): 217-227.
  • Bauman, Z. (2004). Living with Foreigners. Trust and Fear in the City, Milan, Fiducia e paura nella città
  • Farley, T. A., R. A. Meriwether, E. T. Baker, L. T. Watkins, C. C. Johnson and L. S. Webber (2007). “Safe Play Spaces To Promote Physical Activity in Inner-City Children: Results from a Pilot Study of an Environmental Intervention.” American Journal of Public Health 97(9): 1625-1631.
  • Foster, S., B. Giles-Corti and M. Knuiman (2010). “Neighbourhood design and fear of crime: A social-ecological examination of the correlates of residents’ fear in new suburban housing developments.” Health and Place 16(6): 1156-1165.
  • Hillier, B. 2004. “Can Streets Be Made Safe?” Urban Design International 9 (1): 31–45.
Impact of weather conditions
  • Tucker, P. and J. Gilliland (2007). “The effect of season and weather on physical activity: A systematic review.” Public Health 121.

Papers on nature and play

  • Maller, C. J., C. Henderson-Wilson and M. Townsend (2009). “Rediscovering Nature in Everyday Settings: Or How to Create Healthy Environments and Healthy People.” EcoHealth 6(4): 553-556.
  • Thwaites K (2001) Experiential landscape place: an exploration of space and experience in neighbourhood landscape architecture, Landscape Research 26 245 ^ 255
  • Beatley, T. (2011). Biophilic cities: integrating nature into urban design and planning. Washington, DC, Island Press
  • Grinde, B. and G. G. Patil (2009). “Biophilia: Does visual contact with nature impact on health and well-being?” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(9): 2332-2343.
  • Taylor, A. F., A. Wiley, F. E. Kuo and W. C. Sullivan (1998). “Growing up in the inner city- Green Spaces as Places to Grow.” Environment and Behavior 30(1): 3-27.
  • Stokols, D. (1996). “Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion.” Am J Health Promot 10.
  • Pellegrini, A. D. and P. K. Smith (1998). “Physical Activity Play: The Nature and Function of a Neglected Aspect of Play.” Child Development 69.
  • O’Brien, L. and R. Murray (2007). “Forest School and its impacts on young children: Case studies in Britain.” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 6(4): 249-265.
  • McCormack, G. R., M. Rock, A. M. Toohey and D. Hignell (2010). “Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: A review of qualitative research.” Health & Place 16(4): 712-726.
  • Jorgensen, A. (2011). “Beyond the view: Future directions in landscape aesthetics research.” Landscape and Urban Planning 100(4): 353-355.
  • Chawla, L. (2015). “Benefits of Nature Contact for Children.” Journal of Planning Literature 30(4): 433-452.
  • Brockman, R., K. R. Fox and R. Jago (2011). “What is the meaning and nature of active play for today’s children in the UK?” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8(1): 1-7.
  • Wells, N. M. (2000). “AT HOME WITH NATURE Effects of “Greenness” on Children’s Cognitive Functioning.” Environment and Behavior, 32(6): 775-795.
  • Wheeler, B. W., A. R. Cooper, A. S. Page and R. Jago (2010). “Greenspace and children’s physical activity: A GPS/GIS analysis of the PEACH project.” Preventive Medicine 51.
  • Bell, J. F., J. S. Wilson and G. C. Liu (2008). “Neighborhood Greenness and 2-Year Changes in Body Mass Index of Children and Youth.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(6): 547-553.

Papers on urban neighbourhoods and play

  • Lee, C. and A. V. Moudon (2008). “Neighbourhood design and physical activity.” Building Research & Information 36(5): 395-411.
  • Atencio, M. and K. Malone (2007). Child space: An anthropological exploration of young people’s use of space.
  • Beauvais, C. and J. Jenson (2003). The well-being of children: are there neighbourhood effects?
  • Tandy, C. (1999). “Children’s diminishing play space: a study of inter-generational change in children’s use of their neighbourhoods.” Australian Geographical Studies 37.
  • Roberts, J. D., R. Ray, A. D. Biles, B. Knight and B. E. Saelens (2015). “Built environment and active play among Washington DC metropolitan children: A protocol for a cross-sectional study.” Arch Public Health 73(1): 22.
  • Randolph, B. (2006). Children in the compact city: fairfiled as a suburban case study.
  • Matisziw, T. C., C. H. Nilon, S. A. Wilhelm Stanis, J. W. LeMaster, J. A. McElroy and S. P. Sayers (2016). “The right space at the right time: The relationship between children’s physical activity and land use/land cover.” Landscape and Urban Planning 151: 21-32.
  • Head, B. and B. Gleeson (2007). Creating child friendly cities (CCFC) conference: Outcomes and directions statement.
  • Hart, R. (2002). Containing children: some lessons on planning for play from New York City. Environment and Urbanization 14.
  • Goux, D. and E. Maurin (2006). Close neighbours matter: neighbourhood effects on early performance at school.
  • Ginsburg, K. R. (2007). “The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds.” Pediatrics 119.
  • Ellaway, A., A. Kirk, S. Macintyre and N. Mutrie (2007). “Nowhere to play? The relationship between the location of outdoor play areas and deprivation in Glasgow.” Health Place 13(2): 557-561.
  • Christensen, P. and M. O’Brien (2002). Children in the city: home, neighbourhood and community.
  • Bundy, A. C., G. Naughton, P. Tranter, S. Wyver, L. Baur, W. Schiller, A. Bauman, L. Engelen, J. Ragen, T. Luckett, A. Niehues, G. Stewart, G. Jessup and J. Brentnall (2011). “The sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap – unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children’s physical activity
  • Bryson, L. and I. Winter (1999). Social change, suburban lives: an Australian Newtown 1960s to 1990s.
  • Woolcock, G. (2006). Child friendly outer suburban communities: a case study.
  • Woolcock, G. and W. Steele (2008). Child friendly community indicators literature review. Based on a report prepared by Urban Research Program For the NSW Commission for Children & Young People, Griffith University 41.
  • Woolcock, G., B. Gleeson and B. Randolph (2010). “Urban research and child-friendly cities: a new Australian outline.” Children’s Geographies 8(2): 177-192.
  • Woolley, H. (2006). “Freedom of the city: Contemporary issues and policy influences on children and young people’s use of public open space in England.” Children’s Geographies 4.
  • Kottyan, G., L. Kottyan, N. M. Edwards and N. I. Unaka (2014). “Assessment of Active Play, Inactivity and Perceived Barriers in an Inner City Neighborhood.” Journal of Community Health 39(3): 538-544.

Books and papers on space in cities

  • Lefebvre H, 1991 The Production of Space (Blackwell, Oxford)
  • Sieverts, T. (2000). Zwischenstadt: Zwischen Ort und Welt, Raum und Zeit, Stadt und Land. United States, Birkhauser.
  • Aelbrecht, P. S. (2010). “Rethinking urban design for a changing public life.” Journal of Place Management and Development 3(2): 113.
  • Robinson, J. (2006). Ordinary cities: between modernity and development.
  • Richards, L. (1990). Nobody’s home: dreams and realities in a new suburb.
  • Park, R. B., E.; McKenzie R. (1970). The city. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
  • Papadaki, E. (2015). “Curating Lights and Shadows, or the Remapping of the Lived Experience of Space.” The Senses and Society 10(2): 217-236.
  • Miles, M. (2004). The city cultures reader. New York, NY, Routledge.
  • Malone, K., B. Gleeson and N. Sipe (2006). Creating child friendly cities: reinstating kids in the city.
  • Sitte, C. (1986). City planning according to artistic principles, in Camillo Sitte: The Birth of Modern City Planning Eds G Collins, C Collins (Rizzoli, New York) pp 129 ^ 332
  • Turner A (2003). Analyzing the visual dynamics of spatial morphology, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 30 657 ^ 676
  • Malone, K. (2007). Child space: An anthropological exploration of young people’s use of space.
  • Hall E T, 1966 The Hidden Dimension:Man’s Use of Space in Public and Private (The Bodley Head, London)
  • Habermas J, 1997, “Modern and postmodern architecture”, in Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Critical Theory Ed. N Leach (Routledge, London) pp 227 ^ 235
  • Lynch, K. (1977). Growing up in cities.
  • Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge [Mass.], MIT Press.
  • Larice, M. and E. Macdonald (2007). The urban design reader. New York, Routledge.
  • Lamb, M. D. (2014). “Self and the City: Parkour, Architecture, and the Interstices of the ‘Knowable’ City.” Liminalities 10(2): 1-20.
  • LaBelle, B. (2011). “Sharing Architecture: Space, Time and the Aesthetics of Pressure.” Journal of Visual Culture 10(2): 177-188.
  • Karsten, L. (2005). “It all used to be better? Different generations on continuity and change in urban children’s daily use of space.” Child Geogr 3.
  • Karsten, L. (2003). “Children’s use of public space: the gendered world of the playground.” Childhood 10.
  • Gleeson, B., N. Sipe, B. Gleeson and N. Sipe (2006). Creating child friendly cities: reinstating kids in the city.
  • Gilloch, G. (1996). Myth and Metropolis: Walter Benjamin and the City. Cambridge Polity Press.
  • Farr, D. (2008). Sustainable urbanism: urban design with nature. Hoboken, N.J, Wiley.
  • Corkery, L., A. Grant, B. Roche and V. Romero (2006). They should fix the crack: Reflections on the built environment in the middle years.
  • Corbusier, L. (1971). The city of to-morrow and its planning. London, Architectural Press.
  • Chawla, L. (2002). Growing Up in an Urbanising World.
  • Butler, C. (2012). Henri Lefebvre: Spatial Politics, everyday life and the right to the city, Routledge.
  • Zardini M (2005). Sense of the City: an alternate approach to urbanism. Montréal Lars Müller Publishers.
  • Whyte, W. H. 1980. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. New York, NY: Project for Public Spaces.
  • Whyte W. H. 1988. City: Rediscovering the Center. New York: Doubleday.
  • Alexander C, Ishikawa S, Silverstein M, Jacobson M, Fiksdahl-King I, Angel S, 1977 A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (Oxford University Press, New York)
  • Amarala L,Ottino J, 2004,”Complex networks: augmenting the framework for the study of complex systems” The European Physical Journal B 38 147 ^ 162
  • Carmona M, Heath T, Oc T, Tiesdell S, 2003 Public Spaces Urban Places:The Dimensions of Urban Design (The Architectural Press, London)
  • Gehl J, 1987 Life Between Buildings (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York)

Papers and books on urban design and health

  • Sampson, R. J., J. D. Morenoff and T. Gannon-Rowley (2002). “Assessing “Neighborhood Effects”: Social Processes and New Directions in Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 28(1): 443-478.
  • Lowe, M., C. Boulange and B. Giles-Corti (2014). “Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.” Health Promot J Austr 25(1): 14-18.
  • Gleeson, B. (2006). Australian heartlands: making space for hope in the suburbs.
  • Gleeson, B. (2005). Modernity’s paradox: Fatter, sicker and sadder – Part 2.
  • Freeman, C., P. Henderson and J. Kettle (1999). Planning with children for better communities.
  • Jackson, L. E. (2003). “The relationship of urban design to human health and condition.” Landscape and Urban Planning 64(4): 191-200.
  • Buck, C., T. Tkaczick, Y. Pitsiladis, I. De Bourdehaudhuij, L. Reisch, W. Ahrens and I. Pigeot (2015). “Objective Measures of the Built Environment and Physical Activity in Children: From Walkability to Moveability.” Journal of Urban Health 92(1): 24-38.
  • Yan, A. F., C. C. Voorhees, K. Clifton and C. Burnier (2010). ““Do you see what I see?” – Correlates of multidimensional measures of neighborhood types and perceived physical activity–related neighborhood barriers and facilitators for urban youth.” Preventive Medicine 50: S18-S23.

Papers on right to healthy city

  • Boyd, D. R. (2015). “The right to a healthy environment: A prescription for Canada.” Canadian Journal of Public Health 106(6): E353.
  • Kruger, T. M., C. E. Savage and P. Newsham (2014). “Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue.” International journal of aging & human development 80(1): 27.
  • Warne, M., K. Snyder and K. Gillander Gådin (2013). “Promoting an Equal and Healthy Environment: Swedish Students’ Views of Daily Life at School.” Qualitative Health Research 23(10): 1354-1368.
  • Bollier, D. and B. H. Weston (2013). “Toward a recalibrated human right to a clean and healthy environment: making the conceptual transition.” Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 4(2): 116-142.
  • Cobzaru, A. (2013). “FAMOUS CASES WHICH CONFIRMED THE RIGHT TO A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT ON NATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LEVELS.” Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice 5(2): 400.
  • Triggs, T., C. McAndrew, M. Brooke Rogers, and A. B. Wootton. 2012. Safer Spaces: Communication Design for Counter Terror – Design Guidelines. London: Information Environments Research Network with Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure.


Papers and books on play

  • Stevens, Q. (2007). The ludic city : exploring the potential of public spaces. London; New York, Routledge.
  • Nikolopoulou, M., K. Martin and B. Dalton (2016). “Shaping pedestrian movement through playful interventions in security planning: what do field surveys suggest?” Journal of Urban Design 21(1): 84-104.
  • Sturm, J. A. J., J. H. B. Eggen and M. M. M. T. Bekker (2010). “Designing playful interactions for social interaction and physical play.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 14(5): 385-396.
  • Woodyer, T. (2012). “Ludic geographies: not merely child’s play.” Geography Compass 6(6): 313-326.
  • Stevens, Q. (2006). “The shape of urban experience: a reevaluation of Lynch’s five elements.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 33(6): 803-823.
  • Smith, P. K. and Vollstedt (1985). “On defining play: An empirical study of the relationship between play and various play criteria.” Child Development 56.
  • Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The ambiguity of play. US, Harvard University Press.
  • Mouledoux, E. (1977). Theorectical Considerations and a Method for the Study of Play. The study of play: Problems and Prospects: proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Association of the Anthropological Study of Play, West Point, N.Y., Leisure Press.
  • Lester, S. and W. Russell (2008). “Play for a Change.” Play Policy and Practice: A review of contemporary perspectives. London: NCB and Play England.
  • Lancy, D. F. and B. A. Tindall (1976/1979). The Anthropological Study of Play: Problems and Prospects. West Point
    New York, Leisure Press.
  • Huizinga, J. (1956). “Homo Ludens Vom Ursprung der Kultur im Spiel.”
  • Huizinga, J. (1949/1970). Homo ludens: A study of the play element in culture. London, Temple Smith
  • Garvey, C. (1990). Play. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
  • Caillois, R. and M. Barash (1961). Man, play, and games, University of Illinois Press.
  • Association for the Anthropological Study of, P., Meeting, D. F. Lancy and B. A. Tindall The study of play : problems and prospects : proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Association for the Anthropological Study of Play, West Point, N.Y., Leisure Press.
  • Arundell, L., J. Salmon and C. Hume (2010). “Influences on children’s TV viewing and outdoor play during the critical window.” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 12: e183-e183.
  • Ward, C. (1978). The child in the city.
  • Proyer, R. T. (2011). “Being playful and smart? The relations of adult playfulness with psychometric and self-estimated intelligence and academic performance.” Learning and Individual Differences 21(4): 463-467.

Papers and books to look up

  • Enslein, J., & Fein, G. G. (1981). Temporal and cross-situational stability of children’s social and play behavior. Developmental Psychology, 17, 760- 761.
  • Warren, S. L., Oppenheim, D., & Emde, R. N. (1996). Can emotions and themes in children’s play predict behavior problems? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1331-133
  • Merleau-Ponty, M. 1958. Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge.
  • Whyte, W. H. 1980. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. New York, NY: Project for Public Spaces.
  • Whyte W. H. 1988. City: Rediscovering the Center. New York: Doubleday

Sections for lit review

  1. Physical health benefits of playful behaviour
  • Physical activity,
  • Overweight and obesity


  1. Mental health benefits of playful behaviour
  • Brain development
  • Prevents Depression
  • Happiness
  • Anti stress


  1. Social connection through playful behaviour
  • Social inclusiveness
  • Effects on all age groups
  1. Environmental benefits
  • human nature experience (biophilia)
  • urban landscapes
  • air pollution
  • transport and speeds
  • play and neighbourhood environments
  1. Safes money
  1. Creativity
  1. Productivity
  1. Fun
  2. Safety


Work on Ethics and course work (scanning of articles)


Reading the book “Introduction to Phenomenology” while waiting for the builders to be finished.

Finishing draft ethics and further worked on the course set up on moodle (literature uploaded)


Thought on links between play links to creativity, community building, leading to higher value of localism and supporting bioregionalism. –> Investigate options

Work on PhD proposal.

Week 7: 28th- 1st April 216

Thoughts based on Lynch Method (Image of the city), cognitive mapping and different cultures in comparison.

Halseth, G. & Doddridge, J (2000) Children’s cognitive mapping: a potential tool for neighbourhood planning. Environment and planning B: Planning and Design 2000, volume 27, pages 565-582


Notes from creative research methods session 29/03/16 with Tim:

  1. Tips and tricks around writing

25 minutes –> block writing without interference (four intervals)

Pomodoro Technique

shut up and write sessions (setting aside this time)

byword or mark down program (plain text with a series of convention)

Other programs:  Zotero, Databasic.io, Voyant (see through your text)


Creative research practice session 29/03/16 with Lisa:

Creative Labour Studies presentation by Scott Brook

  • critique on mentoring labour as part of the Enlighting festival
  • “Funemployed” book by Justin Heazlewood
  •  Work exploitation
  • Critique of the creative policies across western countries
  • Issues of scope of “Labour market”
  • Creative thinking –> starts with play!
  • knowledge economy –> touch on the idea of what will the new Australian economy look like.
  • rise of the consumer society –> in order to provide an experience
  • massification of higher education
  • mass communication
  • digital economy –> cultural content consumers

Creativity is a new work ethic. Entrepreneurial, risk taking work identities, workers who can forge secure employment and social security.


  1. Labour is love (norm of what you do)
  2. Bad Gamblers model (artists are rational actors with poor information about their changes on the labour market)
  3. Psychic income (soul food, autonomy) –> symbolic capital

Spiritual boundary between capitalism and art –> art is something else

art as labour is Leidenschaft

The artistic critique of work (Boltanski and Chiapello (2010) The New Spirit of Capitalism, p. 38).

Reflection on supervisor meeting on 30/03/16

Theoretical understanding of the city.

–> intro journey

–> lead to definitions

  •  that will lead into the questions
  •  use Lynch as a method
  •  Case study either a city! 20 cases
  • Develop a theory and tested it on the studies –> Create a new theory
  •  Explore theories around play and city –> bring them together!!!
  • What exist out there for planners?
  • Creative clusters (Florida’s)



Reflection on my road finding these questions!

Stress, economics, conception,….

Theoretical play and cities!


Framework –> Stay on theoretical level a little longer

Cross cultural research –> read the cultural cities reader


Starting the ethics process

Every 6 week (lead time)

Describe my research “urban design, culture, city and play“


In search for theories on cities and play


What is a city?

Engineer sees it as a problem of circulation

Planner sees it as order and disorder

Novelist sees it as an accumulation of interconnected stories enabling a collective meaningful memory.


Canon Barnet “the city of interactions”

“They forget that the highest possible life for men may be a city life, and that the prophets foresaw, not a paradise or a garden, but a city with its streets and its markets, its manifold interests and human life…We have our neigbhours in a city, not the trees and the beasts but fellow human beings. We can from them learn greater lessons, and with them do greater deeds. We can become more human. (Canon S.A. Barnett, The Ideal City, ed. H.E. Meller, Leicester, Leicester University Press, (1893-4), 1975, p.55)

Feelings were a fundamental method for Jacobs, when she described the informality of city living. City form and space should provide more than narrowly defined optimal solutions to certain problems such as the disruption of people, traffic and amenities.

Meaning of dwelling from Heidegger (state of being, ontological approach): His observation that dwellings and buildings are related as end and means. Further he notes that all man’s subversion of this relation of dominance drives his essential being into alienation. Heidegger notes, that “amongst all the appeals that we human beings, on our part, can help to be voiced, language is the highest and everywhere the first.” (Building, Dwelling, Thinking, p.348)

My notes: I’d like to add that spaces in between, meaning publicly accessible, are a mean but not an end. They offer a pathway out of alienation as they are the spaces where people as part of their everyday life experience can meet and exchange. Modern communication has only been able to accomplish that in a one to one stream or one way communication through broadcasting on TV or through videos.

Georg Simmel argued in his classical essay “Metropolis and Mental Life” (1903) a distinctive culture but rather the dominance of money in modern society. Money is inherently instrumental and consequently modern society is intellectual, instrumental, blasé and reserved. (page 9, The cultural city reader). Further he argues that intellectuality is a defensive response against the sensory overload characteristic of the modern urban experience. –> If we are unable to change the current environment, all we can do is accept it and change our own perspective. Playful interaction might offer a pathway.

Lewis Mumford worked in the space of cities, human culture and personality. He outlined some fundamentals between planning cities and urban life. Jane Jacobs as well as Don Appleyard acknowledged theatricality of diversity.


What is a city-depends on who you are!

Simmel argues that there is an intrinsic connection between money economy and the dominance of the intellect. (“the Metropolis and mental life” in The Sociology of Georg Simmel (1950) 1903)

Cities are wicket systems, complex, messy and constantly moving. In order to achieve the better outcomes for individuals health and well-being, one must focus on their own activities and engage playfully in every day life. The more each dweller engages in good practice of social play that fosters play with each rather than against each other, the city as a collective.

meaningful memory can transform to a higher consciousness resulting in a true understanding what it means to be human.

If mobility reflects the plus of a city why do we want to be superfast? A balanced overall natural speed on slow speed we can engage in more experiences. Hence are able to interact playfully with the environment.

Stimulation induces a response of the person to those objects in his environment which afford expression for his wishes. Stimulation is essential for growth. Ernest W. Burgess (The growth of the city) 1925

Lewis Mumford outlined in his essay “What is the city” (1937) the following: “The essential physical means of a city’s existence are the fixed site, the durable shelter, the permanent facilities for assembly, interchange, and storage; the essential social means are social division of labor, which serves not merely the economic life but the cultural process. The city in its complete sense, then, is a geographical plexus, an economic organisation, an institutional process, a theater of social action, and an aesthetic symbol of collective unity. The city fosters art and is art; the city creates the theater and is the theater. It is in the city, the city as theater, that man’s more purposive activities are focused, and work out, through conflicting and cooperating personalities, events, groups, into more significant culminations.” Further he notes “the city creates dram, the suburb lacks it.”

One of Mumfords conclusion is that social facts are the primary concept of the city and the physical organisation including its industry, markets, lines of communication and traffic, must be subservient to its social needs. He refers to it as the social nucleus. (p.29-30 in CR)

Interestingly he mentioned that schools, libraries, theaters, community centers are the first task in defining neighbourhood and laying down the fundamentals of a integrated city.

I’d like to note that, theater is a form of play. Theater requires an interplay of different actors and therefore fair play by all that chose to engage in it. By moving to a city people voluntarily accept playing along. However the dark side of play requires further elaboration.

culture: meaning the collective values of a social group as expressed in the habits and expression of everyday lives.

The study of physical manifestation of play culture across cities.

What is the current understanding and status of play culture in cities as part of peoples everyday life experience? What places are important for play in cities? How do playful spaces and places feel like? What is spatial role of play in cities? Under what planning paradigm does play in the city fits? How can cities become places where play is recognised as a defining feature?   

Potential title: Play and the City: the environment, culture and the daily urban life.

Guy Debord (1983) Separation Perfected” from Society of the Spectacle, (Point 19  cited in CR p. 85) “The spectacle does not realize philosophy, it philosophizes reality. The concrete life of everyone has been degraded into a speculative universe.”

Point 33 “Separated from his product, man himself produces all the details of his world with ever increasing power, and thus find himself ever more separated from his world. The more his life is now his product, the more he is separated from his life.” (CR, p. 87)

Point 34 concludes “The spectacle is capital to such a degree of accumulation that it becomes an image.” (CR, p.87)

Pierre Bourdieu idea of cultural goods and symbolic value (The Production of Belief: Contribution to an Economy of Symbolic Goods” from  The Field of Cultural Production, 1993) in CR p.100

Tim Hall argues that the role of public art in the rejuvenation of urban space and marketing of a city. (Opening Up Public Art’s Spaces: Art, Regeneration and Audience, 2003) in CR p.100

Further Savage and Warde in Hall,2003 in CR p.113): “Lefebvre’s laudable project to find a bridge between experienced space, representation of space, and space of representation has proved too hard to put into operation empirically. The crucial link between the construction of place in representation and at the level of everyday experience has not been demonstrated.(1993:132) –> I argue that empirical analysis is just one of many ways to provide evidence of a link. Creative research offers the opportunity to revisit this approach and apply methods in the constructivist epistomology space.
(Savage, M. and Ward, A. (1993) Urban Sociology: Capitalism and Modernity, Macmillan, London.)

In the context of public art and consumer city space:
Contemporary architectural geographies do not emphasis enough the fact that ‘urban meaning is not immanent to architectural form and space, but changes according to the social interaction of city dwellers’. (Loretta Lees 2001:55 Hall in CR, p.114)
Lees L.(2001) Towards a critical geography of architecture: the case of an ersatz colosseum’ Ecumene 8,1, 51-86.

Touch on social justice in combination with human right –> based on Lefebvre’s work on “Right to the city”?? Play as a vision in urban social justice? The work of David Harvey “Social Justice and the City” as well as Manuel Castells work “The Urban Question” provide the basis for economy tradition of urban analysis (Susan Fainstein, “Justice, Politics, and the Creation of Urban Space” from Andrew Merrifield and Erik Swyngedouw (eds), The Urbanization of Injustice, 1996, cited in CR, p.142)

Simmel argues, even after the introduction of of socialism, individuals would continue to express ‘their utterly inevitable passsion of greed and envy, of domination and feeling of oppression, on the slight differences in social position that have remained…” (Kurt H. Wolff (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel, ed, Free Press, New York, 1950, p. 75)
Ralf Dahrendorf argues in the same way with regards to the hierarchy of power and social difference. “Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1959. –> I am not sure if analysis of Power is the way to go!!!

Foucault –> Who holds the power!

Mendeley session on 01/04/16


Week 3: 29th Feb to 4th March 2016

Activities attended:

  • Creative Research unit on practice led and practice based methods
  • UC support on setting up your blog for HDRs
  • Research Design session on qualitative data analysis (25th Feb)

Construction of Meaning

Having the right theory to guide my research is important throughout the entire process. Needs to be critical reviewed, as different theories may be supportive at different stages of the journey.

Bottom up approach useful for qualitative inquiries.

Different Memo types:

  • Method design
  • Reflective
  • Analytic

Literature notes

Always write short but precise definition. Give care and get it done early as misunderstandings can easily occur when working interdisciplinary.

Conceptional mapping is another tool for data assessment.

Mind maps on epistemological approach:



Cognitive spatial mapping graphic:


Jay Appleton, Landscape preference

Familiarity in play as an outcome of exploration. Focus on “what can I do with this?” With increasing familiarity, the mental entities become manipulable. However familiarity is essential to playful rearrangement and recombination of elements towards insights and creativity.  (p.93).

Benefits of evaluation codes (p.94):

  • facilitates decision making
  • permits people to feel right now things they have not done yet
  • allow the future to colour present feelings to dominate them


Reflection and notes from supervisor meeting

new research task:

  • Norman Blaikie,  Designing social research
  • AURIN – test
  • “habitus” concept PhD Thesis from Helen Fitt
  • Yen “case study research”

General task:

Refine mind map –> test cross connections in themes (bringing together two paradigms)

Based on my theoretical and philosophical discourse around psychology may become one stream, however PhD may likely focus on perception of play and access.

Spatial mapping tool idea: MAPS Mini Tool Method  MAPS-mini tool

construction of access

  • opportunities for play
  • definitions

So far all this leads me to the question: What are the triggers (physical as well as cognitive) in enabling access to play in a neighbourhood in an intercultural case study context?

Philosophical discourse:


The word originates from „nahe“ and „Bauer“ in other words close and farmer. However, it can be also primary be understood as bordering house or apartment where people live.

In accordance to sociological theorist Ferdinand Tönnies it can also mean „Gemeinschaft des Ortes“ translating to „Collective of place“.

Modern phenomenon is: we can have a physical place of a collective, however because of modern communication technology can associate the place physically removed from reality. Hence a disengagement with the here and now. Hence a lack of social activity of adults in the local context.

Heidegger contemplates on „dwelling” from an ontological perspective. To dwell means for him to ‚belong…within the fourfold of sky and earth, mortals and divinities’ (TT p.49, BDT p. 150) p.93. Further he argues that a dwelling place is ‚near’ to one, somewhere one is ‚in the nearness’. Heidegger refers to ‚Nähe’ as neighbourhood i.e. dwelling place.

Belonging in modern times is very much a mind-set. Hölderlins highlights in „Hyperion“ the suffering if a homely society is not welcoming if one’s mind-set developed beyond physical boundaries. This disconnect can create an imbalance, despite of the search of a point of connection, while being aware of the interconnectedness of things and in fact the universal being bounded by physical law and the limitation of the biosphere of the earth system.

I believe the suffering of modern societies is that people choose to disengage with the immediate space, as modern technology, can bridge the limitation of local places. However, humans understanding of the physical world originates from a physical engagement with all five senses. If we are reducing our engagement with the real world to one or two senses, we experience a dramatic change in perception of the local neighbourhood. It is also known that children make sense of the world through play in a local context, contributing to a sense of place and the spirit of a local place. If parent disengage with them locally prevent access to sensory experiences, then an imbalance occurs and deforms the state of health of a neighbourhood. A neighbourhood where no children are playing is an indicator for an imbalance in the mind-set and therefore perception of neighbourhood.

Acknowledging that there is not just one objective truth, rather than a perceived reality constructed out of the engagement of our minds with the world. Does that mean that if people choose not to engage with the physical neighbourhood, that neighbourhood become detached from the local context creating a newly perceived reality of neighbourhood by choice? In this virtual neighbourhood that our mind-set creates humans do not necessary require all senses. Again children may suffer.

  • 3rd March Attended the free presentation at the National Gallery on ‘Embodied Museography: Animating the Archive’ by Sarah Kenderdine