Week 10: 18th-22nd April

Monday:

work on draft grant proposal –> next meeting on Thursday to discuss key points
reading and analysis of four key papers for seminar presentation in week 11:

  • Trell E.-M., Hoven B.v. (2010) Making sense of place: exploring creative and (inter)active research methods with young people. Fennia 188:1, pp. 91-104. Helsinki. ISSN 0015-0010.
  • Ryan R.L. (2011) The social landscape of planning: Integrating social and perceptual research with spatial planning information. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100, pp. 361-363.
  • Barron, J. (2016) Community gardening: cultivating subjectivities, space, and justice, Local Environment, DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2016.1169518
  • Jackson, L.E. (2003) The relationship of urban design to human health and condition. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64, pp.191-200.

Tuesday:  

Preparation of ppt. for next week 30 min presentation.

Wednesday:

Meeting with Andrew to discuss grant application

Research, review and critical knowledge construction around approaches to my research endeavour:

  • Methods: body of techniques to investigate the phenomena.
    1. Questions
    2. Hypothesis
    3. Prediction
    4. Testing (observation),
    5. Analysis

 Research Strategy (source: Blaikie, 2007, Approaches to social enquiry)

  • Inductive strategy –> to answer a what question!
  • Deductive research –> only for why questions!
  • Retroductive strategy –> to answer a why question!
  • Abductive strategy –> to answer why and what question!

Folie1

Ontology: What is the nature of social reality?

Idealist: deny of doubt the existence of objects, independent of the mind.

Atheistic idealist: radical, denies the existence or relevance of external world.

Agnostic idealist: existence of the real world, but has no relevance as there is the existence of pure consciousness

Perspective idealist: external world exists, regards differing perspectives about the world

Constrained idealist: Perspective based on constrains and construction of social realities, acceptance of external reality

Subtle realist: believe in an external reality (ethnographers tend to use them),

Shallow realist & Depth realist: reality is a product of interpretation of social actors, and changes putting interpretation into practice.

Depth realist: three levels: empirical (experience through senses), actual (is someone observing it or not), real (processes that generate events). explain observable phenomena with reference to underlying structure and mechanism

Cautious realist: independent external reality, but people cannot perceive it accurately.

Conceptual realist: reality external of mind, but it can be known based on thought and reason. –> collective mind/ conciousness

Epistemology: How can social reality be known?

Empiricism (associated with shallow realist or idealism):  knowledge is produced by using senses, knowledge from observation objectively, external observer trying to understand an object by eliminating ‘inaccuracy’ –> observation come from theory. Knowledge is true cause it reflects what is out there. Language is best description of external reality. Rely on observation and experiments.

Rationalism (conceptual realist): evidence of an unobservable reality, as consequence on people’s lives, processes and structures of the mind. Use of logic, mathematics to judge knowledge.

Falsificationism (cautious realist): hypothetico-deductive method – search for truth can just be done by eliminating the false truth. Theories are invented come from observation. Testing of theories in order to reject false theories and not the development of a theory.

Neo-realism (depth realist): begin with process, seeking underlying reality through structure or mechanism.

Constructionism (idealist): knowledge is neither discovered from external reality nor produced by reason independently from reality. –> outcome of making sense of the world with other people.

Social constructionism: collective generation and transmission of meaning, product of meaning-giving activities of human beings as part of everyday life. Cultures have different constructions.

Conventionalism: knowledge generation is pragmatically to overcome a problem à theories are convenient tools to explain the world.

 

Theoretical position: the philosophical attempt to understand the social world and its conduct.

Positivism (empiricism): general worldview, based on naturalism. Reality, consisting of discrete events that can be observed by our senses. There is order and regularity across time and space.

Critical rationalism (cautious realist/ falsificationism): the natural and social science differ from content, but not in the logic behind methods.

Classical hermeneutics: Schleiermacher – study of understanding itself, dialogue between historical periods –> hermeneutic circle (community of meaning shared by author and reader) –> construct a shared understanding.

Dilthey – study based on method of understanding (verstehen) to grasp the subjective consciousness of participants, study of natural phenomena should seek causal explanation.

Phenomenology: Husserl- underlying consciousness to grasp true meaning; no interest in the real world –> everyday life accept the world as is

Heidegger- understanding the mode of being rather knowledge –> understanding is temporal, humans cannot step outside of history and social world

Interpretivism: study of social phenomena requires an understanding of the social world that people constructed and keep reproducing. Social worlds are already interpreted before social scientist arrive – test a hypothesis. Weber – meaningful interpretation as plausible hypothesis that needs to be tested. Schütz- how understanding is not subjective as it aims to discover what social actors mean; Language just a means; insider perspective

Critical theory: interest is fundamental; human social existence is seen to be based on power, self-reflection and emancipatory interest. – Habermas; natural science is bound to observation, but social science can use communication.

Ethnomethodology: includes concepts such: accounts, accountable, reflexivity, glossing practice, indexicality –> rational study of the ways ordinary members of society achieve and maintain a sense of order in their everyday practical activities.

Social realism: dominates contemporary philosophy of science and replaces positivism and critical rationalism; reality consists not only consists of events that can be experienced, but includes events that occur, whether experienced or not –> structures and mechanisms produce these events. But there is disagreement regading the state of being of social structures (structuralist and constructionist).

Contemporary hermeneutic: third stage of hermeneutic: concern not with individuals subjective meaning, but with the meaning of the reader. –> Dadamer

Structuration Theory (idealist/ aspects of subtle realist): adopted constructionism; an attempt to reconstruct a basic premises of social analysis, particular based on the state of being, –> Giddens

Feminism: rejects traditional norm and practice,

 

Methodology: theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge

Heuristic inqury: inquiry that brings to the fore the personal experience and insights of the researcher. Heuristics emphasizes connectedness and relationship.

Action research: either research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a “community of practice” to improve the way they address issues and solve problems.

Discourse analysis (DA): or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use

Grounded theory: involving the construction of theory through the analysis of data. Likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data, As researchers review the data collected, repeated ideas, concepts or elements become apparent, and are tagged with codes, which have been extracted from the data. As more data are collected, and as data are re-reviewed, codes can be grouped into concepts, and then into categories. These categories may become the basis for new theory.

Phenomenological research: phenomenology encourages more detachment in analysing experience, describes a phenomena of consciousness and show how its constituted. –> brings to the fore the personal experience and insights of the researcher. With regard to some phenomenon of interest, the inquirer asks, “What is my experience of this phenomenon and the essential experience of others

 Conclusion (my research stand)

Ontological

Constrained idealist: Perspective based on constrains and construction of social realities, acceptance of external reality

or

Cautious realist: independent external reality, but people cannot perceive it accurately.

Epistemological

Constructionism (idealist): knowledge is neither discovered from external reality nor produced by reason independently from reality. –> outcome of making sense of the world with other people.

or

Social constructionism: collective generation and transmission of meaning, product of meaning-giving activities of human beings as part of everyday life. Cultures have different constructions.

Theoretical position

Interpretivism: study of social phenomena requires an understanding of the social world that people constructed and keep reproducing. Social worlds are already interpreted before social scientist arrive – test a hypothesis. Weber – meaningful interpretation as plausible hypothesis that needs to be tested. Schütz- how understanding is not subjective as it aims to discover what social actors mean; Language just a means; insider perspective

and/or

Contemporary hermeneutic: third stage of hermeneutic: concern not with individuals subjective meaning, but with the meaning of the reader. –> Dadamer

and/or

Post-modernism: rejection of grand theories, rejection of absolute truth, knowledge is a social construct, and negotiated through dialog, result there are many truths, language is no longer a mirror of reality, centrality of discourse, the person is seen as a collection of separate identities, rather than individuals, adopts cultural relativism as all social constructions are valid.

Methodology

Phenomenology: Husserl- underlying consciousness to grasp true meaning; no interest in the real world –> everyday life accept the world as is (seeing, hearing, tasting) from a first had observation.

Heidegger- understanding the mode of being rather knowledge –> understanding is temporal, humans cannot step outside of history and social world

Although I doubt that there is a universal consciousness, rather than a shared consciousness based on a collection of identities.

or

Discourse analysis (DA): or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use

and/or

Grounded theory: involving the construction of theory through the analysis of data. Likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data, As researchers review the data collected, repeated ideas, concepts or elements become apparent, and are tagged with codes, which have been extracted from the data. As more data are collected, and as data are re-reviewed, codes can be grouped into concepts, and then into categories. These categories may become the basis for new theory.

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