Week 12 2017

After several disruptive weeks – pushing child friendly cities and play in media and at events I am back on the PhD research.

The feedback form the Assessor was to use Stevens work as a basis rather than Lefebvre. This led to an revised PhD proposal and contemplation about new research questions.

Project Proposal can be accessed here: PhD Proposal 23 March2017

Maciocco, G. & Tagliagambe, S. (2009). People and Space, New Forms of Interaction in the City Project. Urban and Landscape Perspectives 5; Springer. doi 10.1007/978-1-4020-9879-6_1

The City Project: intermediate Space and Symbol (p.164)

“The loss of the differential quality the city has suffered in its drift towards the “generic city”, a phenomenon of reduction of diversity, standardisation of life and the space produced by shopping, which has become “a primary way of urban life”, “the apotheosis of modernisation” (Chung 2001), the foolish outlet of the doctrine of form (of the city) that follows the (consumer) function in the same way throughout the world, the “unexpected revenge of functionalism” (Chung, 2001).

Chung C. J., Inaba J., Koolhaas R., Tsung Leong S. (2001) Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Taschen, Cologne.

Linked to the “generic city” is the process of “thematisation” of the city, the transformation of the city as a theme-park, an experience of places that is also the model of the place of pleasure (Jacobs 1998), a model that requires a glance turning everything into a show, that tends to blend in with its surroundings (Caillois, 1984) and that produces an absence of reference point, like the space of a labyrinth, spectacular and supervised, making the contemporary city uniform (Bataille 1970). But it is a desired labyrinth, that represents a complete mosaic of different types of landscape that make up, indeed, the “dark object of desire” of society (Vos and Meekes 1999).

Bataille G. (1970). Le labyrinthe. In: Bataille G. (ed) Oeuvres complètes, Gallimard, Paris. Caillois R. (1984). Mimicry and legendary. Psychastenia, October n 31.
Vos W., Meekes H. (1999) Trends in European cultural landscape development: perspectives for a sustainable future. Landscape and Urban Planning 46 (1-3).

The representations, images, our society creates for itself of landscapes as “desired products” express detachment from reality. In this detachment between reality and representation lies the contemporary incapacity to “represent” the city , to “see it”. What is projected in images aberrant to the point of losing their reference point is nothing more, probably, than the loss of the reference point as such, a loss affecting language, the same loss that affects the inhabitant when he tries to imagine the city (Soutif, 1994). If we do not go to meet the real, in the lived in space, unsettling pairs of opposites like real city/simulacrum city and citizen/non- citizen (de Azua 2003) will become established, where the figure of the “non-citizen” will correspond to the loss of the urban collective conscience and, with it, the loss of the city as a conceptual unit.

Soutif D. (1994) Topes et Tropes Le plan de Ville et la Référence. In: Dethier J., Guiheux A. (eds) La ville Art et architecture en Europe 1870- 1993, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

de Azua F. (2003) La necessidad y el deseo. Sileno nn. 14-15, pp. 13-21

“The space of the mind that gradually develops as the subject understands, in his acting and often after he has acted, the sense of this actions and those of others and that, in this sense, opens up to the world of relations that feeds the collective conscience.” (p.165)

–> Is the post capitalist city a place where symbols are exchanged? “The expressive strength of the symbol is essential for collective gaining of awareness of the elements that preside over our spatial life. ” (p.165)

The symbol represents,  always, “something else”, it refers to something different and never uncodifiable. (p.166)

“A symbol can be understood as a “bridge cast” between the universe of visible phenomena and the invisible, between reality and possible worlds.” (p. 167) –> play is a possibility and create opportunities for reaching out to a different world!

“The active, collective glance at the city makes us feel we belong to a whole, it reveals to us the contemporary public space.” p.13

Brodsky J. (1995) On Grief and Reason: Essays, Farrar straus Giroux, New York.

“The more substantial an individual’s aesthetic experience is, the sounder his taste, the sharper his moral focus, the freer- though not necessarily the happier- he is (Brodsky 1995, pp. 49-50).

Week 46: 27th- 30th December 2016

If play originates from a temporary situational joyful and socially inclusive sensational experience and situations are just products of what we are, how is it that there is so few public places truly socially inclusive designed.

Situation- a set of circumstances in which one finds oneself; a state of affairs. Or the location and surroundings of a place.

Spontaneous-  performed or occurring as a result of a sudden impulse or inclination and without premeditation or external stimulus.

Play – engage in activity for enjoyment and recreation rather than a serious or practical purpose.

 

Play origin

Old English:

plegain – to exercise

plega –brisk movement

 

Middle dutch:

Pleien- leap for joy, dance

 

Theoretical thinking

Hypothesis:

Further thinking on spaces based on the reading of Lefebvre’s “Production of space”. Aim of this exercise is to create a response to the assessors feedback.

Energy needs to be wasted. Energy is not constant.

Energy produces space, too much space speeds up the process until disconnection is reached. The process implodes and creates a new opportunity through rebirth.

Hypothesis:

We create in our minds spaces (representational space). These spaces can be transformed through energy into symbols reaching out beyond the individual identity. Symbols can be transformed into action. These actions have effects on objects in space. Through a surplus of energy we can modify these objects. This process of producing these spaces can be described as ‘lived space’ (Lefebvre,p. 236) as it embodies both spaces (mentally and physically) and has a strictly symbolic existence. The results of the produced spaces effect other identities adding further energy and shared interpretation of objects. This shared interpretation in conjunction with actions in space can be called co-production of space. This co- production can just occur as long there is a surplus of energy available. Once this energy ceases, transformation occurs and changes into the space of memory. Complete is the cycle of space creation. This transformational process from co-production into the representational space, as Lefebvre referred it to, and opens up bridge to consciousness that creates the opportunity to elevate self- consciousness.

How does this relate to play?

Play lends itself as the perfect vehicle to this theory.

Lefebvre eloquently described this in his book “The production of space” and talks about a triad of spaces.

The representation of space (maps)

The representational space (memory).

The lived space (absolute space).

 

His thoughts originate from Marxist thinking about the value creation through labor,….

I agree with Lefebvre that “knowledge falls into a trap when it makes representation of space the basis for the study of ‘life’ for is doing so it reduces the lived experience”.  There is a great need to verify and test a priori against a posteriori (empirical evidence research approach. As Kant outlined the nature of a priori as transcendental and enables a better understanding of different forms of all possible experiences. I believe that both need to work with each other. A priori can be understood as a guiding light asking to be contested and verified by the a posteriori approach.

Hypothesis:

Urban Designers should strive to understand all three dimension of spaces if we want to create healthier environments for people. Play can be one of the vehicle to understand the interplay and harness indicators that create a fertile ground for carefully inserted changes in space enabling further playful experiences.

Conclusion:

With that in mind, the study of play supports the notion for this research project to collect data in a posteriori manner and use abductive reasoning, to find the logical inference from observation to the most likely explanation (theory).

Play in the street

 

Week 41: 21st- 25th November 2016

After the comments of the assessor’s at the confirmation seminar last week, I took the opportunity to reflect and go through my own comments. Unpacking the session with my supervisors was helpful in order to contexcualise aspects. Valuable were the following:

  • keep narrowing down;
  • revisit research question and my aim as tools to narrow the scope further;
  • stick to my methodology and methods.
  • as it is not about existentialism or discourse analysis rather an observation of a phenomena providing insights into the dynamics and tension of the triad of spaces in light of the the affordance theory form Gibson and Flow. The tension can be made visible through the heuristic device of play explaining transformational change in time space of public urban spaces (streets environments)
  • This research is not traditional phenomenology (Merleau- Ponty) – environmental psychology based on Gibson and Kaplan
  • unpack further the meaning of play in the context of my research
  • justify further why the street (go back to Appleyard)
  • read again Lefebvre in order to explain the context of time when he wrote this and compare to the contemporary environments
  • the concept of “Right to the city” was seen from Andrew as an opportunity to dive further into as a basis to root this tension of space through play.

send email off the HDR waiting for feedback on the confirmation seminar that I can proceed.

Notes from literature work (23 Nov):

Henri Lefebvre “critique of Everyday Life” 1947 (translated 1991)

Since Marx and through the notion of making alienation a key concept in analysing the human situation Lefebvre was the first philosopher who connected philosophy to action. P. x

“Man must be everyday, or he will not be at all” p. xix

Own observation/ reflection

The tension in urban public spaces between the production of space and the regulation accompanied by the consumption of spaces is evident and even more prominent in the contemporary context of humans and the urban condition.

City governments around the world aim for the creation of equitable and just places, as it is supported by the New Urban Agenda. However, the current condition shows inconsistencies and tensions. Urban designers and architects aim to deliver under the promise of vibrancy and vitality quality urban spaces for all. Contemporary urban renewal processes focus strongly on objects in combination with land value capture propositions and increase liveability. Urban vibrancy is increasingly delivered under the paradigm of consumption and productivity. This not just reflects the neoliberal zeitgeist, but also raises questions around alienation and correlation to mental health issues in urban systems. These tensions can be made visual through play as a heuristic device.

Alienation leads to impoverishment, to the ‘despoliation’ of everyday life. However, Lefebvres everyday life is not reduced to inauthenticity of Alltäglichkeit, as in Heidegger or Lukács. P. xxiv

Modernity which has despoiled the everyday life of former times, which never appeared save in its metamorphoses, as in festival, which embodied a genuine ‘auto-critique’ of the everyday; it is modernity which has caused everyday life to degenerate into ‘the everyday’ p. xxvi

Modernity is the movement towards the new, the deployment of technology and rationality (which Lefebvre calls ‘modernism’), but it is also the absence of any real transformation of social relations, and leads from the human towards the inhuman, towards barbarity. P. xxvii

–> play behaviour mobile phone in public space –> transformation of the mind?? Less ‘real’ social interaction –> interactions of the minds –> disconnected from the ‘real’ –> but there is Pokemon Go??

Habermas distinction between System and Lebenswelt informed the work and impacted the debate in the second half of the 20th century in Europe.

Naïve, physically adept but spiritually innocent – Charlie Chaplin

Visually comic moments when Chaplin when he cannot adept create laughter and assure that humor never becomes awkward or embarrassing. Like pleasure, like harmony in music, laughter is stimulated by a series of resolved tensions, in which moments of relaxation are followed by even higher tension. P.10

Strangeness –> alienation

Through deviation through disorientation and strangeness, Chaplin reconciles us on a higher level, with ourselves, with things and with the humanized world of things. P.11

Restricting access to these pressures urban spaces.

“there are plenty of reasons for thinking that descriptions and cross-sections of this kind, through they may well supply  inventories of what exist in space, or even generate a discourse on space, cannot ever give rise to  a knowledge of space. And, without such a knowledge, we are bound to transfer onto the level of mental space – a large portion of the attributes and ‘properties’ of what is actually social space.” p.7

the physical experience in cities occupied by sensory phenomena, including products of the imagination such as projects and projections, symbols and utopias. p.11

space of social practice

focus on dialectic rather codes –> highlighting contents inherent to the forms under consideration. p. 18

25 Nov.

After reading several papers on Lefebvre and the context of his work it became clearer why his work is relevant in the contemporary urban academic debates.

The social space development within the triad of spaces can reflect the state of development of societies. Therefore it serves not just as an instrument for space observation (play) but may explain certain transformation of social conditions in cities. –> concepts that are non instrumental, spatial separated and public.

Conflicts can be made visual through the heuristic device of play. Stevens rightly pointed our that there is to date very little empirical evidence and understanding in the “non-functional” use and design of public space. He references Lennard and Lennard (1984), Dargan and Zeitlin (1990) as well as Borden (2001). Also he indicated that Gehl and Whytes work are mostly space- centred investigating general categories of everyday behaviour.

Stevens draw on observations of a range of cities over a long period. Critique point from him is that urban design foundation is amenity, but this can draw some people away. another issue is that we thrive to figure out how  spatial characteristics  shape people’s experiences and behaviours. Amentity again is being seen as the solution to a desired outcome that share the physical environment. However people understanding, their actions is well understood and fixed.

–> play and the city –> discover of the potential of urban streets.

–> development of an tool or a play ‘lense’ that can be used to make this tension visible and help to find solutions for urban design interventions.

Revised research question:

  • What are the aspects of play that reveal and facilitate change in the urban social spaces?
  • What are the  health co-benefits of play?
  • How can this device be used to inform optimal urban experiences?

Finding a way how to look beyond some of the limits of urban design thinking and practice.

Week 28: 22nd – 26th August 2016

PhD overview (500 words)

The phenomena of play in cities

Play is an intrinsic induced activity, that constitutes freedom, based on the acceptance of risk in its temporary transformational nature. It includes attributes such as spontaneity, curiosity, voluntary and creative processes that occur outside of the ordinary. This purposeless activity is necessary to the human identity as an exploratory pursuit of pleasure and comfort outside of social purpose.

Until now the dialectic between play across the lifespan and the city has not been understood well. Western research tradition excepts play as phenomena in opposition to or as a negation of resisting order of things. Play is perceived as secondary state of reality granted and justified from bottom up in context of children or animals. In contrast, eastern cultures consider play as top down phenomena, the highest form of ontological state. Play as the primary form of knowing is given alternative states of reality higher status. Only a small number of researchers theorised play as the highest ontological state of being. The identified research gap and unique epistemological contribution on play is placed beyond targeting child participation and their right to play, but also by interrogating change based on playful activity as an optimal experience in adults and elderly people.

This research adopts Stevens (2007) exploration of play in a theoretical context and by using Lefebvre’s theories (1991) on the production of space to theorise playful behaviour in cities. The researcher will focus on the novel approach of exploring the phenomena of play and its varieties in cities in an international cross cultural context in the nexus of street environments as a place for optimal experience that can improve health and well-being.

Based on the theoretical context and through deployment of different qualitative methods on a single revelatory case study, the author explores the following set of questions:

Why do people prefer certain environments to play in cities?

What are the co-health benefits of play?

Where does play as an optimal experience occur in streets?

What makes these places meaningful to play and how do these places feel like?

What are the environmental triggers that support play in cities outdoors?

How can cities become places where play is recognised as a design consideration?

Three different street environments comprising of pedestrian zones, shared spaces/path and residential street serve as subunits to the case study. Validating the essence of our human existence through connecting the subject – internal experience- with the object – material world around us. A transpersonal inquiry into human experiences includes object to subject and subject to subject relationship on three levels. The first phase will investigate physical traces. The second level phase will use observational study ranging from outsider, marginal participant to full participant. The third phase includes a short unstructured interview to gain further insights in relation to the degree of optimal experience in the realm of memory.

This research intends to provide empirical evidence of how playful activity can engender a more conscious human centred urban design approach of cities that enables more often opportunities for optimal experiences through playful activity across all ages and cultures. Subsequently the research may assist in improving the overall health and well-being of people and the liveability of cities.

References

Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Cambridge, Mass., USA;Oxford, OX, UK;: Blackwell.

Stevens, Q. (2007). The ludic city : exploring the potential of public spaces. London; New York: Routledge.

Supervisor meeting

Supervisor meeting on 22nd was very helpful in revisiting my research question. Need to refine and reduce amount. I may not be able to answer all of them.

Also stated the exercise to create a matrix that helps me to assess the urban design component in the lead up to the fieldwork test in Germany mid September.

The discussion with Steve reminded me of the need to focus on the everyday life in cities, as designers are easily drawn to top down approach. I do not intent to make my topic a power struggle approach after Foucault. I’d rather focus on the ontological state offside power. Also the meeting was useful in a sense that he believed that we with our narrow perception create nature, the environment through symbols (e.g. language). Some languages have more words other create nuanced wording. At the end of the day he agreed that we are unable to perceive the external reality in a correct manner.

He also kindly offered to attend the confirmation seminar and be an advisor to my topic.

Maurice Merleau- Ponty is useful to explain the phenomenological approach in the beginning in relation to our perception of the environment. To a degree he may offer a good pathway into the constructionism approach.

New lead question: What are the health co-benefits of play in cities?

Revised sub-questions: What makes places optimal for play in cities? What are the environmental triggers that support play in cities?

PhD Proposal 240816

Friday note:

Developed and refined the environmental assessment and play behaviour assessment matrix further for testing as suggested by Andrew.
Printed all Ethics forms and posters in order to be able to test research on the ground while I am in Germany.

Suggested process:

  1. Site observation, environmental assessment, documentation for traces, validating section for spatial vantage points for observation.
  2. Observational study on 5 days each in setting (during observation, note keeping and potential engagement, reflexion and self assessment to validate findings. Carrying out unstructured interviews where possible.
  3. Evenings: review of recordings during day time and fill in Matrix plus storage of qualitative observations and interview recordings (once agreed by subject)

Andrew suggested at yesterdays meeting to drop the suburban street context in Canberra. reason one: very different parameters at play
reason two: two street types better as it is more manageable

 

 

 

Week 27: 15th – 19th August 2016

Meeting with supervisors

  • took place in week 26
  • received valuable feedback on my summary one pager. As I understood the entire PhD hangs off these 500 words.
  • Also I’ve received a valuable article, that creates a useful bridge between physical activity and play where observational methods were used.
  • Thiel, A., Thedinga, H. K., Thomas, S. L., Barkhoff, H., Giel, K. E., Schweizer, O., … Zipfel, S. (2016). Have adults lost their sense of play? An observational study of the social dynamics of physical (in)activity in German and Hawaiian leisure settings. BMC Public Health, 16, 689. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3392-3
  • Conclusion of paper was: in order to get adults more physical active focus on fun message and carry out further studies in leisure time environments.
  • As the predominant form of public realm in cities is street space, it supports the notion that my research can add value and is so far unique.

fieldwork preparation

  • Work on observational coding table continues. I am focusing on types human playful activity, environmental composition (spaces and places) and supportive information (age, gender, body composition, time).
  • important that these measures can be related back to my original research questions.

Documents attached Purpose of research 2081016
fieldwork play types

 

 

Week 20: 27th June – 1 July 2016

More thoughts

In reference to Lefebrve’s Production of Space:

“If reality is taken in the sense of materiality, social reality no longer has reality, nor is the reality.” p. 81

Thought: It may explain the increased level of depression and anxiety in western cultures.

Dwelling is as much a work as it is considered a product. However it remains a part of nature. It is an object intermediate between work and product, between nature and labour,between the realm of symbols and the realm of signs. p.83

The city may be understood as a work instead of a product. Example Venice, Italy.

If work is defined as a unique, original and primordial, as occupying a space yet associated with a particular time, a time of maturity between rise and decline –> under these circumstances Venice can be understood as a work.p. 73

What if one replaces the term/ word “work” with “play”. This would translate in relation to work in the context of unique act of creation rather production.

If play is defined as a unique, original and primordial, as occupying a space yet associated with a particular time, a time of maturity between rise and decline. –> spaces in cities can be understood as play spaces.

Case study rational

Based on Yin and after many ours of reflection I am testing  a single case study approach (phenomena play) and apply this on several units (precincts in cities). This will allow me to test certain methods and based on success rate to deploy them in an improved manner on other units.

However, while thinking about the approach further there is a part of me who still favours the multiple case study approach. Yin refers to the circumstances that 6-8 case studies are sufficient to prove a phenomenological point, but my project will investigate maximum 4 cases.

Multiple case approach:

  • Each on is a whole study in itself (lends itself to the book -> constructing a narrative behind the context)
  • Weakness might be that this distracts too much from the phenomena
  • It may be impossible to replicate environmental condition for play as their are time temporal and unique pending on outdoor condition.
  • analytical conclusions easier
  • if you do not seek direct replication it is good because of contrasting situation

general critique on single case studies:

  • fear about the uniqueness –> criticism turn into skepticism about the ability to undertake empirical work
  • requires careful investigation of the potential case to minimise the chances of misrepresentation and to maximise the access needed to collect the case study evidence.

critical test of a significant theory.

  • Revelatory case: investigator has an opportunity to observe and analyse a phenomenon previously inaccessible to the social science, Whytes “Street Corner Society” is an example.
  • Representative or typical case: capturing of circumstances or conditions of an everyday lay concept. Informative about experiences.

holistic case study problem: nature of the entire case study may shift, during the course of study. –> would need to make sure that the research questions still apply.

Conclusion

If I would do a single case study, then a embedded unit of analysis would be better. I would have to make sure that the single case- design (play) is eminently justifiable under certain conditions:

does it represents a testing of a theory? Unlikely.

is it a rare or unique circumstance? or representative or typical case? or where the case serves a revelatory case? In my case revelatory case.

Definition of the unit of analysis particular important: in my case precincts in cities (urban morphologies I am looking at). In can also include subunits.

  • Single revelatory case (play)
  • units (city/urban precinct)
  • subunits (urban tissues: public space, open space, park, street, edge)

Yin suggests that often too much attention goes into the subunits and the larger, holistic aspects of the case being ignored.

Multiple case studies: 2 or 3 cases can be undertaken on the basis of replication, but how clear can I define the parameters for replication (every city, every urban environment is unique)

The theoretical framework is particular important as it needs to state the condition under which a particular phenomenon (play) is likely to be found. –>  multiple case study might be better for comparison. Deployment of the same logic in every case.

Pilot case study -> worthwhile  in order to refine data collection plan with respect to content and procedure.

Selection criteria: convenience, access, geographical proximity

single case study embedded approach (revelatory)

image.jpg

or

multiple case study embedded  approach

image.jpg

Unit of analysis:

  • Definition very important. Unit would be a certain city and the subunits (open space, public space, parks, streets, edges)
  • The unit of analysis can be compared.

I will need to determine the scope of data collection (see methodology), how I distinguish data about the case (play) from external data (context–> cities, health and well-being in general).

Spatial, temporal and other concrete boundaries need to be defined as key to defining my case (play).

Revisiting the research question

Validation after amendments to case study approach and in order to be clearer, narrower  and less vague.

Led research question

Original: Why does play in cities matter?

New:

  • Why do people play in cities?
  • Why should cities be designed for play?
  • Why do people prefer certain environments for play in the cities?

Answering research questions (White, 2009, p.114 ff.)

data –> warrant –> conclusion (Gorard, 2002)

The conclusion needs to be linked to the evidence via the warrant. The warrant is a logical argument demonstrating why the conclusions follow from my evidence.

Claims need to be stated clear and precise.

Prepare to defend claims against alternative interpretation.

Warrant can be a principle

E.g. if a greater number of play incidents are observed at a particular point in time compared to another point in time, this may constitutes a rise or frequency in playful behaviour.

play at time A: 6

play at time B: 15

Warrant principle

claim: play activity increased

 

Case study definitions & Selection criteria

Case

The case will be the phenomena of play, in the context of human playful behaviour.  The definition of play:

Play is an intrinsic induced activity, that constitutes freedom, based on the acceptance of risk in its temporary transformational nature. It includes attributes such as spontaneity, curiosity, voluntary and creative processes that occur outside of the ordinary. This purposeless activity is necessary to the human identity as an exploratory pursuit of pleasure and comfort outside of social purpose.

Unit

Precincts in mid- size cities (see results week 19 blog).

Subunit

Public place:

 

Open space:

Open space refers to land that has been consciously or unconsciously reserved for the purpose of either formal or informal activity such as sport and recreation, preservation of natural environments, provision of green space and/or urban storm water management.

Park:

Street:

Why these four categories?

Week 10: 18th-22nd April

Monday:

work on draft grant proposal –> next meeting on Thursday to discuss key points
reading and analysis of four key papers for seminar presentation in week 11:

  • Trell E.-M., Hoven B.v. (2010) Making sense of place: exploring creative and (inter)active research methods with young people. Fennia 188:1, pp. 91-104. Helsinki. ISSN 0015-0010.
  • Ryan R.L. (2011) The social landscape of planning: Integrating social and perceptual research with spatial planning information. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100, pp. 361-363.
  • Barron, J. (2016) Community gardening: cultivating subjectivities, space, and justice, Local Environment, DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2016.1169518
  • Jackson, L.E. (2003) The relationship of urban design to human health and condition. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64, pp.191-200.

Tuesday:  

Preparation of ppt. for next week 30 min presentation.

Wednesday:

Meeting with Andrew to discuss grant application

Research, review and critical knowledge construction around approaches to my research endeavour:

  • Methods: body of techniques to investigate the phenomena.
    1. Questions
    2. Hypothesis
    3. Prediction
    4. Testing (observation),
    5. Analysis

 Research Strategy (source: Blaikie, 2007, Approaches to social enquiry)

  • Inductive strategy –> to answer a what question!
  • Deductive research –> only for why questions!
  • Retroductive strategy –> to answer a why question!
  • Abductive strategy –> to answer why and what question!

Folie1

Ontology: What is the nature of social reality?

Idealist: deny of doubt the existence of objects, independent of the mind.

Atheistic idealist: radical, denies the existence or relevance of external world.

Agnostic idealist: existence of the real world, but has no relevance as there is the existence of pure consciousness

Perspective idealist: external world exists, regards differing perspectives about the world

Constrained idealist: Perspective based on constrains and construction of social realities, acceptance of external reality

Subtle realist: believe in an external reality (ethnographers tend to use them),

Shallow realist & Depth realist: reality is a product of interpretation of social actors, and changes putting interpretation into practice.

Depth realist: three levels: empirical (experience through senses), actual (is someone observing it or not), real (processes that generate events). explain observable phenomena with reference to underlying structure and mechanism

Cautious realist: independent external reality, but people cannot perceive it accurately.

Conceptual realist: reality external of mind, but it can be known based on thought and reason. –> collective mind/ conciousness

Epistemology: How can social reality be known?

Empiricism (associated with shallow realist or idealism):  knowledge is produced by using senses, knowledge from observation objectively, external observer trying to understand an object by eliminating ‘inaccuracy’ –> observation come from theory. Knowledge is true cause it reflects what is out there. Language is best description of external reality. Rely on observation and experiments.

Rationalism (conceptual realist): evidence of an unobservable reality, as consequence on people’s lives, processes and structures of the mind. Use of logic, mathematics to judge knowledge.

Falsificationism (cautious realist): hypothetico-deductive method – search for truth can just be done by eliminating the false truth. Theories are invented come from observation. Testing of theories in order to reject false theories and not the development of a theory.

Neo-realism (depth realist): begin with process, seeking underlying reality through structure or mechanism.

Constructionism (idealist): knowledge is neither discovered from external reality nor produced by reason independently from reality. –> outcome of making sense of the world with other people.

Social constructionism: collective generation and transmission of meaning, product of meaning-giving activities of human beings as part of everyday life. Cultures have different constructions.

Conventionalism: knowledge generation is pragmatically to overcome a problem à theories are convenient tools to explain the world.

 

Theoretical position: the philosophical attempt to understand the social world and its conduct.

Positivism (empiricism): general worldview, based on naturalism. Reality, consisting of discrete events that can be observed by our senses. There is order and regularity across time and space.

Critical rationalism (cautious realist/ falsificationism): the natural and social science differ from content, but not in the logic behind methods.

Classical hermeneutics: Schleiermacher – study of understanding itself, dialogue between historical periods –> hermeneutic circle (community of meaning shared by author and reader) –> construct a shared understanding.

Dilthey – study based on method of understanding (verstehen) to grasp the subjective consciousness of participants, study of natural phenomena should seek causal explanation.

Phenomenology: Husserl- underlying consciousness to grasp true meaning; no interest in the real world –> everyday life accept the world as is

Heidegger- understanding the mode of being rather knowledge –> understanding is temporal, humans cannot step outside of history and social world

Interpretivism: study of social phenomena requires an understanding of the social world that people constructed and keep reproducing. Social worlds are already interpreted before social scientist arrive – test a hypothesis. Weber – meaningful interpretation as plausible hypothesis that needs to be tested. Schütz- how understanding is not subjective as it aims to discover what social actors mean; Language just a means; insider perspective

Critical theory: interest is fundamental; human social existence is seen to be based on power, self-reflection and emancipatory interest. – Habermas; natural science is bound to observation, but social science can use communication.

Ethnomethodology: includes concepts such: accounts, accountable, reflexivity, glossing practice, indexicality –> rational study of the ways ordinary members of society achieve and maintain a sense of order in their everyday practical activities.

Social realism: dominates contemporary philosophy of science and replaces positivism and critical rationalism; reality consists not only consists of events that can be experienced, but includes events that occur, whether experienced or not –> structures and mechanisms produce these events. But there is disagreement regading the state of being of social structures (structuralist and constructionist).

Contemporary hermeneutic: third stage of hermeneutic: concern not with individuals subjective meaning, but with the meaning of the reader. –> Dadamer

Structuration Theory (idealist/ aspects of subtle realist): adopted constructionism; an attempt to reconstruct a basic premises of social analysis, particular based on the state of being, –> Giddens

Feminism: rejects traditional norm and practice,

 

Methodology: theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge

Heuristic inqury: inquiry that brings to the fore the personal experience and insights of the researcher. Heuristics emphasizes connectedness and relationship.

Action research: either research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a “community of practice” to improve the way they address issues and solve problems.

Discourse analysis (DA): or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use

Grounded theory: involving the construction of theory through the analysis of data. Likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data, As researchers review the data collected, repeated ideas, concepts or elements become apparent, and are tagged with codes, which have been extracted from the data. As more data are collected, and as data are re-reviewed, codes can be grouped into concepts, and then into categories. These categories may become the basis for new theory.

Phenomenological research: phenomenology encourages more detachment in analysing experience, describes a phenomena of consciousness and show how its constituted. –> brings to the fore the personal experience and insights of the researcher. With regard to some phenomenon of interest, the inquirer asks, “What is my experience of this phenomenon and the essential experience of others

 Conclusion (my research stand)

Ontological

Constrained idealist: Perspective based on constrains and construction of social realities, acceptance of external reality

or

Cautious realist: independent external reality, but people cannot perceive it accurately.

Epistemological

Constructionism (idealist): knowledge is neither discovered from external reality nor produced by reason independently from reality. –> outcome of making sense of the world with other people.

or

Social constructionism: collective generation and transmission of meaning, product of meaning-giving activities of human beings as part of everyday life. Cultures have different constructions.

Theoretical position

Interpretivism: study of social phenomena requires an understanding of the social world that people constructed and keep reproducing. Social worlds are already interpreted before social scientist arrive – test a hypothesis. Weber – meaningful interpretation as plausible hypothesis that needs to be tested. Schütz- how understanding is not subjective as it aims to discover what social actors mean; Language just a means; insider perspective

and/or

Contemporary hermeneutic: third stage of hermeneutic: concern not with individuals subjective meaning, but with the meaning of the reader. –> Dadamer

and/or

Post-modernism: rejection of grand theories, rejection of absolute truth, knowledge is a social construct, and negotiated through dialog, result there are many truths, language is no longer a mirror of reality, centrality of discourse, the person is seen as a collection of separate identities, rather than individuals, adopts cultural relativism as all social constructions are valid.

Methodology

Phenomenology: Husserl- underlying consciousness to grasp true meaning; no interest in the real world –> everyday life accept the world as is (seeing, hearing, tasting) from a first had observation.

Heidegger- understanding the mode of being rather knowledge –> understanding is temporal, humans cannot step outside of history and social world

Although I doubt that there is a universal consciousness, rather than a shared consciousness based on a collection of identities.

or

Discourse analysis (DA): or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use

and/or

Grounded theory: involving the construction of theory through the analysis of data. Likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data, As researchers review the data collected, repeated ideas, concepts or elements become apparent, and are tagged with codes, which have been extracted from the data. As more data are collected, and as data are re-reviewed, codes can be grouped into concepts, and then into categories. These categories may become the basis for new theory.