Week 45: 19th- 23rd December 2016

Reviewed and reflected on the feedback from Assessors report and prepared a draft response as a basis for discussion on the 21 December 2016 with my supervisors.

Discussion Report can be accessed here: Draft Response Assessors Report

Supervisor arrangements

Andrew- will take a step back in 2017 for own research and swapped positions with Milica.

From 1st January 2017 Milica will be primary supervisor until Andrew returns. However, regular meetings with Andrew are scheduled.

Definition of play

Over the weekend I’ve revised the definition and created a figure to support the theoretical write up.


 Supervisor meeting 21st December 2016


Link between Lefebvre

explain production of space

how is each element linked to play

Small review of quality of space literature in relation to play and why is play important part of it.

Why can a behaviour approach can be used in the context
Be careful with mixing resolving something and explorational pursuit

Explain the three examples more. –> explain the behavioural study

Explain a bit more the diagram and the definition.



Is play in us or in the environment?  –> hypothesis

Health and well-being needs to be more clearly linked.

Hypothesis exercise

end up being a traditional PhD.


Brainstorming after meeting

research and explain the

Social cognition and interpersonal perception

Situationist –> alternative life experiences through the construction of situations,


Lefebvre, H. (1991). Production of space.

“A society is a space and an architecture of concepts, forms and laws whose abstract truth is imposed on the reality of the senses, of bodies, of wishes and desires.” p. 139

“Metaphor and metonymy are not figures of speech – at least not at the outset. They become figures of speech. In principle, they are acts. (…) they bring fourth form  the depths not what is there but what is sayable, what is suceptible of figureartion- in short, language.”  p. 139

“Symbols always imply an emotional investment, an affective charge…and thereafter ‘represented’ for the benefit of everybody elsewhere.” p. 141

He speaks of reading of space.. which is possible. “Space is at once result and cause, product and producer; it is also a stake, the locus of projects and actions deployed as part of specific strategies, and hence also the object of wagers on the future- wagers which are articulated, if never completely.  p. 142-143

“In produced space, acts reproduce ‘meanings’ even if no ‘one’ gives and account of them. Repressive space wreaks repression and terror even though it may be strewn with ostensible signs of the contrary (of contentment, amusement or delight). This tendency has gone so far that some architects have even begun to call either for a return to ambiguity, in the sense of a confused and not immediate interpretable message, or else a diversification of space which would be consistent with a liberal and pluralistic society.” p.144-145.

Robert Venturi –> architect wanted to make space dialectical (1966). He saw the space not as an empty and neutral milieu occupied by dead objects, but rather as a field of force full of tensions and distortions.” p. 145

Lefebvre’s  conclusion “We have seen that the visual space of transparency and readability has a content -a content that it is design to conceal: namely, the phallic realm of (supposed) virility. It is at the same time a repressive space: nothing in it escapes the surveillance of power. Everything opaque, all kinds of partitions, even walls simplified to the point of mere drapery, are destined to disappear.” p, 147

He also suggests based on the notion that we are designing now buildings with steel and glass that “private life ought to be enclosed, and have a finite, or finished, aspect. Public space, by contrast, ought to be an opening outwards. What we see happening is just the opposite.” p.147

Space related to:

Form, structure and function -> structural or functional  analysis p. 147

aegis–> public areas (the spaces of social relationships and actions) are connected up the private areas (spaces for contemplation, isolation and retreat) via ‘mixed’ areas (linking thoroughfares)

shin-gyo-sho embraces three levels bound together by relationships of reciprocal implications: spatial and temporal, mental and social. p. 153

It is not about decoding a system –> rather creating one. Differences between Japanese philosophy and western civilisation. p. 156

Its about bringing the realms into harmony and not through use of sign and its analytical proclivities. p. 156










Week 39: 7th- 10th November 2016

During this week I’ve prepared my presentation for my confirmation seminar for the 17th November. Milica, Andrew, Rachel and Paul provided vital feedback –> resulting in further editorial work on my research proposal as well as in the presentation itself.

Paul has been so kind and did a test run with me on Friday –> detail matters.

Final ppt for the confirmation seminar can be downloaded here

Final proposal can be downloaded here



Week 35: 10th – 14th October

This weeks highlights were:

  1. completion of the PhD proposal and submission. This included a priority change in research question. Health is now a how question supporting the concept and not diving it.
  2. preparation of two conference abstracts on play / one for the IPA world congress 2017
  3. meeting with supervisors on thesis:

Need to start working on methods and think about visualisation, classification of matrix  as well as commence research in Canberra on the ground.

Confirmation seminar is now on the 17th November in the morning.

Week 27: 15th – 19th August 2016

Meeting with supervisors

  • took place in week 26
  • received valuable feedback on my summary one pager. As I understood the entire PhD hangs off these 500 words.
  • Also I’ve received a valuable article, that creates a useful bridge between physical activity and play where observational methods were used.
  • Thiel, A., Thedinga, H. K., Thomas, S. L., Barkhoff, H., Giel, K. E., Schweizer, O., … Zipfel, S. (2016). Have adults lost their sense of play? An observational study of the social dynamics of physical (in)activity in German and Hawaiian leisure settings. BMC Public Health, 16, 689. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3392-3
  • Conclusion of paper was: in order to get adults more physical active focus on fun message and carry out further studies in leisure time environments.
  • As the predominant form of public realm in cities is street space, it supports the notion that my research can add value and is so far unique.

fieldwork preparation

  • Work on observational coding table continues. I am focusing on types human playful activity, environmental composition (spaces and places) and supportive information (age, gender, body composition, time).
  • important that these measures can be related back to my original research questions.

Documents attached Purpose of research 2081016
fieldwork play types



Week 19: 20th June – 25th June 2016


Australian Play culture – not permitted anymore! (Source: Daily Telegraph June 20, 2016, p. 12)


Draft structure literature review

Structure literature review

  1. Introduction
  2. Cities and everyday life
    • City
    • Everyday life in cities
    • Role of Urban Design in everyday life
      • Place making
      • Tactical Urbanism
    • Typologies in urban design for public life
      • Street
      • Edge
      • Open space
      • Parks
      • Public places
      • Public spaces
      • Third spaces
  1. Play (definitions, explorations)
    • Playful behaviour
    • Typologies of play
    • Human play
      • Children (structured and unstructured)
      • Adolescents
      • Adults
      • Older people
      • People with disadvantages
      • Interaction with other living beings
    • Risk and play
    • Right to play
      • Universal Declaration on Human Rights
      • UN Rights of the Child (Article 12 and 31)
  •  Play culture
    • International context
    • Australia
    • Germanycool
    • Vietnam
    • Finland
  1. Environmental health and well- being
    • Physical health
      • Physical activity
        • Structured physical activity
        • Unstructured physical activity
      • Obesity and overweight
      • Diabetes 2 and other non-communicable diseases
    • Mental health
      • Cognitive development
      • Depression
    • Healthy environments
      • Biophilia (Open space and nature)
      • Safe and attractive places and spaces
      • Connected places
      • Environments for all
      • Supportive infrastructure
      • Built form
  1. Quality experiences in public everyday life
    • Flow
    • Maslow’s pyramid of human needs
    • Gibson’s affordance concept



Play for all- as a path towards the re-establishment of a strong civil society based on space of quality experiences in a prosperous perceived realm of everyday life.

based on reading of “Australian heartlands- making space for hope in the suburbs” by Brendan Gleeson, 2006

Supervisor meeting

  • Confirmation seminar last HDR 2016
  • Research question
  • Development of a one pager (concept context conviction) approx. 500 words
  • Clarification on case study approach

Selection criteria:

  • Germany Australia Finland Vietnam
  • Political systems
  • Geography
  • City size
  • Density/built form
  • Climate
  • Personal experience
  • Open space/built space

Purpose of research 

One pager that outlines the concept, context and my conviction in approximately 500 words can be downloaded by clicking herePurpose of research

Selection criteria case study approach

Political system

  • Vietnam – single party socialistic republic
  • Australia – federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • Germany, Finland – democratic, federal parliamentary republic
  • Cuba – democratic centralist




Vietnam – tropical

Australia – subtropical

Germany- continental

Finland, Sweden, Denmark –  cool, maritime, continental/ subarctic climate

City size

Need to conceptualise the term ‘mid size city’:

In the context of globalisation, urbanisation and sustainable development goals there seems to be a strong focus and emphasis on the leading large sized cities around the planet. Organisations and Institutions such as C40, Rockefeller Foundation, the LSE Urban Age Program etc. focus with their programs on the mega or large cities. However, mid sized cities will evidently have to deal with similar challenges relating to urban qualities such as housing, social, environment, culture and economy. As a consequence, mid sized cities remain often unexplored to a degree. Often these cities seem to be less well equipped corresponding with their available resources and internal capacity. In the other hand mid sized cities can offer assets that are not available in larger cities. For example in Europe living more than 260 million people in cities with more than 100.000 people, but only 20 percent of them living only in cities with more than 2.5 million people. 44 percent live in cities of less that 500.000 residents. However population size may need to contextualised in the regionally, nationally and internationally. For example in China cities with up to 5 million may still considered as mid sized city.

So population size is a starting point to define mid sized cities.

Cities up and around 500.000 people


  • Kassel (192,874)
  • Potsdam (159,456)
  • Freiburg (229,144)


  • Hoi An (121,716)
  • Hué (333,715)


  • Canberra- Queanbeyan (373,084)
  • Newcastle (489,599)
  • Gold Coast- Tweed (565,705)

Skandinavian countries (Finland, Sweden, Denmark):

  • Helsinki (629512)
  • Malmö (318,107)
  • Copenhagen (591,481)

Why Sweden? Sweden’s Vision Zero road safety policy.

Built form / open space


Personal experience

Work experience in Kassel, Potsdam, Hué, Canberra,








Week 13: 09th May- 13th May

Continuing to develop some kind of research design

A potential theory or confirmation of a theory may come out at the end rather testing a pure hypothesis!

  • A- priori (generated from theory, literature) –> health and wellbeing
  • A posteriori (from data gathered)
  • Look beyond language (because different words will we coded differently)

Supervisor meeting

Important not to have a lead question for (lived realm) –> analysis of their response  –> I will do the lead back to “play”

try a matrix diagram to create cross connection from affordance to Lefebvres realms.

use a play theory that I can lay over with Lefebvres theory.

Keep working on Ethics and proposal (for presentation) –> identify a confirmation seminar date.

Status DAAD grant application

Australia-Germany Joint Research Cooperation Scheme application form 2016

Research on affordance

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.


  • Gibson argues affordance is an automatic process that is an integrated part of perception.
  • People perceive things as part of their routine and consider at least to a degree what they could do with that.
  • The potential use of an object to the individual.
  • Question with regards to play is not “what is this?” rather “what can I do with this?”(Kaplan, S. and R. Kaplan (1982). Cognition and environment: functioning in an uncertain world. New York, Praeger. p. 93)
  • Identity of the elements can be explored and elements rearranged.
  • Familiarity is an outcome of a exploration (starting point for play)
  • Even when rearranged object are manipulative,  but manipulation need not to be of concrete objects.

Cognitive maps require a evaluative code in order to be effective guides to action (Kaplan, p.94).

Create tables of possibilities –>  Preference, Type, Material and time dimension

Brendan Gleeson (2016): To a new Babylon, Griffith Review, Melbourne

Gleeson reflexes in his essay on the nexus between tradition, faith and reason. Drawing Terry Eagelton’s work (Hope without Optimism 2015) on the great force of the power of theology as a pathway to resolve the human dilema. Gleeson create a bridge to mental health and outlines that depression will be the second most common disease in the world by 2020 (WHO). Further he indicates that Hannah Arendt’s work (The Human Condition, 1958) and writings of Ivan Illich critic of western society. The critique was directed towards imagination of a world beyond capitalism and excessive trapping of industrial modernity. His imaginary future included a ‘convivial modernity’ where technology were seen as tools and limited to the principles of human and natural sufficiency. –> Bicycle was one of these ideal tools.

Are we creating good enough cities? While asking himself the question he outlines the limitation of utopian scenarios and points towards Eagelton ‘Images of utopia are always in danger of confiscating the energies that might otherwise be invested in its construction’. In addition he notes, that utopian thinking rarely produced anything other than misty eyed pieties that haven’t particular helped anyone.

Gleeson also point out and that is of particular interesting in relation to play as a cognitive behaviour, cognitive behaviour therapy is transfixed with the integrity of the present, evoking a civilisation that cannot mobilise the imaginative energy that is needed to face an imperilled future. –> resulting in higher rates of alienation or as Gleeson puts it ‘to be trapped in exile from human meaning and possibility.

He also highlights that Arendt warned about the collective consequences and summarised it in an ‘outbreak of human stupidity’ with an decrease in common sense supported by an increase of superstition and gullibility.

Conclusion: see the means to transform and renewal with hopeful ideas that can be implemented in the here and now –> embracing possibility of collective imagination in dark times through play.

Mental time travel (a way to capture the lived spaces of Lefebvre’s idea)

Reflexive work on research endeavour

Development of ppt summarising the research journey and development so far.

Draft Introduction presentation GHM

This includes Research question, research paradigm, research design matrix, methodology, initial methods.

Note: I find myself working intensively with the blog in order to keep track of though development.


Week 11: 26th-29th April 2016

Research Method session with Tim


troveharvester 0.1.4

work on newspaper article

Data management

Library guide

www.ands.org.au –> Preservation of research data across Australia

Portal to research data www.researchdata.ands.org.au –> often no access to meta data

http://www.data.gov.au –> government datasets with metadata available

for the ACT: www.data.act.gov.au


For making my data available:

use Figshare www.figshare.com


Web archiving

Pandora (selective archive in order to get around copy right)

e-deposit (send a copy to an archiving system e.g. the library)

Webarchiving will become an important tool to policy and political analysis

Australian Policy online –> to make grey literature available: www.apo.org.au

waybackmachine: archives all webcontent worldwide http://archive.org/web/
useful option to save data whenever I want it!

Biodiversity, films, images all of that is recorded in the waybackmachine

Webrecorder –> records the links using my browser to find data www.webrecorder.io

Presentation to peers as part of the creative research course

presentation access here

Outcomes uni presentation

Wednesday research & meetings day

Book: Sykes, H. (2013). Space, Place & Culture, Sydney, ISBN 9780987480705

Creative Cities by David Yencken pp.90- 110

“Curiosity about life in all its aspects, I think, is still the secret of all creative people.” Leo Burnett

“Human behaviour flows from three main sources: desire, emotion and knowledge.” Plato

  • ‘A City is not a tree’ by Christopher Alexander confirmed the complexity of interactions that occur in cities. He draws on the notion of humans inability to grasp or even retain complex forms and to reduce them to a manageable form. –> formal confirmation that cities are wicket systems.
  • Yencken draws on the notion that ecological variety and complexity give health to natural systems and variety and complexity give health to social and cultural systems.
  • All those people in these urban systems have different needs. The only way to envisage all these needs is through individual identities.
  • Yencken notes further, if we want creative cities we should recognise and encourage variety and complexity. The understanding of complexity is holistic thinking.
  • Western thinking might not be the way to answer holistic thinking, based on the philosophical origins. So how can we explain something that is constantly changing in Aristotelian thinking, it is or it is not.
  • He points out,that the preservation of social networks is more important than physical improvements to housing in less accessible locations.
  • a city can be perceived as a series of experimental relationships- events, activities, spaces and structures that generate emotions.
  • human stress of adaptation to a new environment can be greatly reduced when involving them.
  • creative cities have places for healing and contemplation –> magic places.
  • smart cities should smarty foster social interactions
  • cities consume 60-80 percent of energy and emit about 75 percent of Co2 emissions.
  • Kelly social cities report argues that personal relationships are fundamental source of happiness and well-being –> social connection is crucial to well-being.
  • Main concern is the experience of the city!


Supervisor Meeting

Task: Work on play definition and towards a joined paper.

Think about play under the paradigm what could be…

Book: Stevens, Q. (2007) The Ludic City. Exploring the potential of public spaces, New York

The Ludic City argues, that one of the fundamental functions of public space is as an environment where informal, non instrumental social interactions e.g. play can happen.

Concept of ‘play’ as a distinct character of urban experience. –> I’d like to argue that is is a quality experience.

Stevens argues that play is a largely neglected aspect of people’s experience of urban society as it embraces spontaneous, irrational or risky activities.

He points out that the forms of play reveal people’s creativity, curiosity and imagination when using public space.

Exploration of ‘play’

‘Play’ is a pure waste: waste of time, energy, ingenuity, skill, and often of money. (Caillois, 1961, p.5) It takes advantage of the surplus which exists in the natural world, made possible by human work. However I’d like to argue that there is an underlying interdependency. The human needs to work as well as play to bring back a balance to everyday life.  The act of creation (play) the new, is born out of the chaotic uncontrolled and unproductive acts in life. The act of productivity (work) is required to enable an environment where play can happen. Bataille (1985) support this argument by highlighting that society is defined by how it chooses to use or ‘waste’ its surplus and not by its mode of production. ‘Waste’ is an exit strategy out of cycles of acquisition, productivity and conversation. This reinforces the importance of play ‘not as a waste of time, but time filled with profound and rich experiences (Clark and Holquist 1984, p. 303 cited in Stevens, 2007, p.32)

social relations are rarely exploitative.

Play separates time and space. This allows people to forget their everyday roles, conventions, demands and restrictions.

Good spaces in a sense are inherently used inefficiently –> space is ‘wasted’.

Leisure can be passive –> but play is active

Play is a product of process of everyday life as well as a producer of processes. p.23

Play is temporary

Play is freedom (Huizinga (1970)

Play is intrinsic

Play transforms everyday experiences within everyday places.

Play is repetitive –> it is grounded in imitations of social practice and the material world. Play is archaic, magical mode of relating to things and to practices- in a child context  (Gilloch 1996:86 cited in Stevens, p.24)

Play can be disruptive – can be understood as an opportunity to reveal mythic from within.

Play sits outside of ‘everyday’, ‘mundane’ and ‘habitual’. –> it generates a quality experience within everyday activities, but breaks with ‘habitual’ although can be consumed by habitus however still rejects ‘mundane’.

city spaces for play

Reasoning why cities are the perfect place to study play, in accordance to Stevens (2007):

“The density and diversity of the city provide a stimulus and a milieu for this exploration. The publicness of space and people’s anonymity to one another encourage the development of roles and masks and encourages the expression of self. The surplus wealth which is a product of the city’s diversity makes possible non-instrumental interactions, and the complexity of urban social space also stimulates such interactions. The disorder of symbolism in the city reawakens memories, demythifies them, and arouses the imagination. All these conditions can potentially override social order and control. The experience of urban space is  characterized by multiplicity, ambiguity and contradiction, the unpredictable and the unfamiliar.”  p.25

Forms of play can occur in places that are physical or socially ‘forbidden, isolated, hedged, hallowed, within which special rules apply’ (Huizinga, 1970, pp. 28-29).

Play is traditionally understood as something opposite, compared to long- term purposes, work in accordance to Goodale and Godbey (1988). They also argue that play includes the freedom to attempt something and allow it to fail. Experiencing risk adds strength and depth of people’s experience in the world.

For Stevens, play is a principle contradiction to people’s assumptions about the everyday functionality of the urban built environment.

Deployment of the term ‘play’ is widely applied. It is always a rhetorical construct in order to describe a range of behaviours based on value and objectives (Sutton-Smith, 1997 cited in Stevens, 2007, p.26)

In general its a counterpoint to behaviour that is categorise ‘normal’ – everyday, conventional, expected, calculated, practical, constant. Interpretation depends on professional interest.

Focus on four interrelated ways which playful behaviour can be experienced as an escape from other aspects of everyday life in the contemporary city (Stevens, 2007, p. 27):

  • play involves actions which are non-instrumental,
  • there are boundary conditions and rules which separate play from the everyday,
  • play involves specific types of activities through which people test and expand limits (competition, chance, simulation and vertigo),
  • play in the city very often involves encounters with strangers.

Stevens acknowledges that play in a child context occupies a more narrow range of behaviour than the play of adults. He argues that play is just one component of the complex social existence of working adults and rarely analysed.

Mouledoux (1977) made the remark that ‘the full variety of play forms only appears with the achievement of a certain maturity’ (pp.52-52).

Adults play less often than children, but their freedom, abilities and knowledge make the dialectic qualities of play so apparent. Stevens highlights that “adult play provides far better illustration of the transformation of everyday life and of lived space into new experiences and new forms. It is the play of adults which can lead to a reconsideration of the ways in which urban space might stimulate and facilitate unexpected and impractical behaviour, and how space can be utilized for escape form serious meanings and uses and to critique the normal social order. ” (Stevens, 2007, p.27)

Children’s skills and ambition are limited and play is the primary function to pursue. It is often supervised. He raises another limitation of children’s behaviour, based on the notion that children’s play evolves around freedom, creativity and diversity of human agency rather then open it up. Huizinga (1970) points out that this does not explain why and how adults play.

Gilloch (1996) points out that adult play in urban spaces can enable a re-enchantment of their world. They take ‘advantage of conditions under which toil may be transformed into play, fetishism into curiosity, tyranny into reciprocity, and drudgery into spontaneity’ (Gilloch 1996 cited in Stevens 2007, p.28).

There is a distinction between leisure and play, as play offers potential of urban experiences for promoting and framing active, creative, and above all public behaviour. Play does not depend on leisure –> undermining of social aspects because leisure can foster segregation.

For Lefebvre (1991,The production of space, Oxford: Blackwell) describes play as an encounter with difference, encounters which contest the fragmentation and alienation of contemporary social experience.

Because play happens as part of everyday life, but is in itself an escape of reality it is far richer and valuable than rationalism and morality.

Play has a dark side as it can ignore even ethical boundaries. Nietzsche argued that the whole world is ‘eternally self creating, the eternally self destroying –> beyond good and evil. –> I’d like to argue play is a form of acknowledgement and the inherent prevalence of difference.

Play is the rehearsal of eternity (Bauman 1993, p.171). Nothing builds up, each new play is a new beginning.

In play and its culture is interlinked between adult and child world – both are not detached from other phenomena. (Kalliala, 2006)

Huizinga (1947) describes the homo ludens (playing man) and considers this as the essential nature of people better than homo sapiens.

Play is one of the main categories of human activity and an important element of culture. In accordance to Caillois (1961), Huizinga focuses too much on the higher forms of play (e.g. fighting for something and playing roles). However he ignored the ‘useless’ and chaotic elements of play. –> Caillois looks into both the higher as well as the chaotic elements of play.(Kalliala, 2006, p.17)

Also Caillois found it hard to define play and characterised it as followed:

  • voluntary
  • detached from ordinary life
  • unpredictable
  • unproductive
  • imaginative
  • in accordance with the rule

Both Huizinga and Caillois value the freedom play can provide and how people engage on a voluntary basis. It provides pleasure and allows a fascination of place because it is spontaneous and unconsciouse. The absorption in play can be described by the ‘flow’ theory from Csikszentmihalyi (1975). Flow as a way of spontaneous joy, delight and inseparability of self, action and the environment (Kalliala, 2006, p.18).

Detachment from ordinary life: play happens outside of the ordinary, however it often derived from the everyday life.

Bateson (1955) highlights that communication in play can either happen through text (description of play) and context (framework of play). Although I would argue that not just text but language is the transmitter of description.

In line with Caillois observations play is unpredictable and unproductive. The imaginative element highlighted by  Jean Piaget (1972) is an indication of thinking. For Vygotsky (1976) play is an indication for cognitive development, which is a indispensable precondition for intellectual development.

Caillois classification (typology) of play

  • competition (agon) – winning
  • chance and destiny (alea) – best luck
  • imitation (mimicry) – shared illusion (social and first step to release meaning from the ‘here and now’ perception –> helps to develop consciousness)
  • dizziness (ilinx) – falling, swining, sliding etc. –> vertigo

However Caillois admits that it is not possible to cover all fields of play with only four concepts (Kalliala,2006, pp. 20-21). Combinations of all four are possible.


Preliminary conclusion

It is important to acknowledge that it is difficult to define play. This conclusion should be understood as an attempt to explore and characterise the term ‘play’ in the broader theoretical context.

Play is an intrinsic induced activity, that constitutes freedom, based on the acceptance of risk in its temporary transformational nature. It includes attributes such as spontaneity, curiosity, voluntary and creative processes that occur outside of the ordinary. This purposeless activity is necessary to the human identity as an exploratory pursuit of pleasure and comfort outside of social purpose.



Vygotsky,L. (1976) Play and its role in the mental development of the child. In Bruner, J., Jolly, A. and Sylva, K. (eds) Play: Its Role in the Development and Evolution. New York: Basic Books, 537-54.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975) Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: The Experience of Play in Work and Games. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Caillois, R. (1961) Man. Play, and Games. New York: The Free Press.

Bateson, G. (1955, 1976) A theory of play and fantasy. In: Bruner, J., Jolly, A. and Sylva, K. (eds) Play: Its Role in the Development and Evolution. New York: Basic Books

Lefebvre (1991),The production of space, oxford: Blackwell

Mouledoux, E. (1977) Theoretical Considerations and a Method for the Study of Play, in D. Lancy and B.A. Tindall (eds)The Study of Play: Problems and Prospects, West Point, NY: Leisure Press.

Huizinga, J.(1970) Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture, London: Temple Smith.

Bauman, Z. (1993) Postmodern Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell

Sutton-Smith, B. (1997) The Ambiguity of Play, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Goodale, T. and Godbey, G. (1988) The Evolution of Leisure: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives, State College, PA: Venture.

Gilloch, G. (1996) Myth and Metropolis: Walter Benjamin and the City, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Clark, K. and Holquist, M. (1984) Mikhail Bakhtin, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.